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AS PE The Development of Competitive Sport (Part 1)

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Mike Tyler

on 21 September 2016

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Transcript of AS PE The Development of Competitive Sport (Part 1)

1066
1500
2010
1750
The Development of Competitive Sport
Social Order
Around AD 1000 society begins to become more ordered
Holy Days
Holy Days on the calendar were set aside for festivals and games.

These included: New Year's Day, Plough Monday, Easter, Shrovetide, May Day, and Whitsuntide.

Parts of the summer were also devoted to games.
Case Studies
Ashbourne
Shrovetide Football
Social Change in C18th & C19th
Agrarian Revolution
Public Schools
Codification & Rationalisation
Boys from different schools
Oxbridge
The melting pot
Ancient Games
Greek and Romans first introduced sport festivals
1900
Social Change in the C20th
Spectatorism
WAR & HUNTING
Which sports most closely link to war and/or hunting?
Archery / Boxing / Fencing / Pugilism
Social hierarchy develops
Gentry & Peasants
Jousting - why?
Fighting - why?
Knights: Horse / Sword
Peasants: Longbow
Under Henry II (Reigned 1154 –1189) Sunday Longbow practice was compulsory by royal order for those earning between 2 and 5 pounds per year
Middle Ages: 1066 - 1480
Local activities only (due to travel constraints).

This led to peculiar localised games and sports, such as the Haxey Hood, and Ashbourne Shrovetide Football.
Haxey Hood
held on Twelfth day of Christmas (Jan 6th)
Real Tennis
Hoose agen hoose,
Toon agen toon,
If a man meets a man nok 'im doon, but doant 'ot 'im
Creation of an affluent middle class
Spare Time and Money
Enclosure Act (1845)
The enclosure of land for farming meant that there was a restriction on open spaces available to play games and sports.
Methodist Movement
Religious / Christian movement which emphasised 'respectability, hard work, thrift, sobriety, and obedience'

The success of the Industrial Revolution can in part be attributed to the teachings of this movement

Sometimes called the 'Protestant Work Ethic'
Respectability
Victorian ideals of what was proper meant a high moral standard alongside a sound body.

The two were seen as indivisible
Wages
The rural working class began to move into cities by the end of the 19th century.

Wages were extremely low for most

Managers of factories had higher wages than the workers
Mechanisation
Gradual improvements in farming techniques meant fewer people were needed to maintain each farm.

A huge increase in levels of production, allowed a larger population to be sustained by the nation's farms.

Also, as a consequence landowners became increasingly wealthy
What to do with it?
Private Education & Sport
Urban Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Life before the IR
Working on farms or in cottages

Living in rural areas

Single worker or single family produces product from start to finish

Typically agricultural products (e.g. wool, meat, eggs, etc)

Limited communication and trade
Working in factories

Movement towards cities - cities grew rapidly

Division of labour (production lines)

Long hours / Poor pay / Poor conditions
Life after the IR
Boarding
Conditions were harsh so boys were prepared for rigorous competition

The boys were always present so they had time for pastimes and other pursuits
Endowed
Public Schools were fee paying, so well-heeled, influential, and affluent families sent their boys to boarding school

The schools were therefore in receipt of money and/or property for improving facilities, buying playing fields and later investing in professional coaching
Boys
A natural enthusiasm for games and competition

School masters came to realise that these traits would be better channeled in to organised sport rather than fighting and poaching
Non Local
Boys came from many parts of the country.

They each brought the local versions of old folk games with them.

These then needed to be 'codified' into a set of agreed rules at each school
Expansion
With the Industrial Revolution and the growth of the wealthy middle classes, public schools began to grow rapidly in size.

Innovations in the transport system (i.e. railways) also allowed boys to come from further afield
Sport in Public Schools
All these aspects combined to produce a new type of schooling where sport could flourish
The Influence of Public Schools
codified, regulated, organised and competitive
Three major stages of Public School development
Stage 1:
Bullying and Brutality (1790s - 1824)
Within the context of wider social change, known as 'the civilising process'
Stage 3:
Athleticism (1842 - 1914)
Stage 2:
Social Control (1824 - 1842)
Codification: Agreement on Rules and Regulations
Take their sports around the globe (CAT PUICCA)
Village greens were preserved by the Act, but these did not undo the impact of widespread enclosure
These fields became privately owned over time.
BUT NOT FOR THE GENTRY!!!
Complete the card sort to identify characteristics of these 2 types of recreation
Popular vs Rational Recreation
Return to schools as teachers but with codified rules
NGBs
Oxbridge
CAT PUICCA
Public School boys had a major role in taking their codified sports around the country and ultimately the world
This can be remembered by the mnemonic
The Spread of Codified Sport
Colonial
Army
Teaching
Patronage
University
Industry
Church
Clubs
Administration
The Public School influence began to RUB OFF...
Regular play, which increased standards of performance

Universities, as a melting pot for codification

Building specialist facilities, such as swimming baths and gymnasia

Other schools, which copied their ethos

Festival days, such as sports days, which became a key part of the school calendar

Fields, which were purchased and proudly maintained for games playing
SUMMARY
Mens sana in corpore sano
first attempts at national level codification and standardisation.
e.g. Rugby Football vs Association Football
English society contrasted the high culture (regency period) with the low culture (blood sports and bare knuckle fighting).

Recreational activities were organised by the boys for pure enjoyment and to relieve the boredom of academic work.

Often descended into violence or illegal practices since school masters did not get involved outside the classroom.
Laws banning cruelty to animals restricted many of the boys' pursuits (e.g. baiting)

Arnold used games as a vehicle for establishing social control. Developed the 'House' system and a school sport calendar

Sixth formers given responsibilities for discipline of younger boys. This included organising games and activities.
'The combination of physical effort and moral integrity' i.e. play hard, but play fair or 'Muscular Christianity'

Reached cult proportions: a craze or obsession of playing team games. Became known as the 'cult of athleticism'
OXFORD
CAMBRIDGE
The Impact of Rational Recreation
initially sport was spread by university graduates as a pastime alongside their professional jobs



these men often felt that sport could be used amongst the lower classes as a means of social order, for their moral benefit and to spread their own values



with Oxbridge opening its doors to women, there became a demand for girls' schools as well as a group of well educated women to teach in them. This led to the codifying of sports such as tennis and hockey.



eventually governing bodies altered the idea of the gentleman amateur from class based to attitude based. Professionals were permitted but they were still xpected to abide by huigh moral standards
Are you 'fighting fit'?
Urbanised and Industrialised Society
Church and factory teams set up
Existing NGBs see more participants and demand for competition
Professionalism
The Gentleman Amateur
Reformative Policy
Girls' Schools
Governing Bodies
Aims
1. To be able to define Sport

2. To develop an overview of the history of sport

3. To consider the origins of different sports
What is Sport?
Come up with a single sentence definition of sport.
Do the following fit your definition?
Archery
Ballet
Gardening
Tiddlywinks
Climbing trees
If you can't
bet
on the outcome, it's not a sport
If it doesn't involve
play
, it's not a sport
If it doesn't have
rules
, it's not a sport
If you can't improve with
practice
, it's not a sport
If it's not
competitive
, it's not a sport
Chess
Full transcript