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The History of The Camera and How it Has Impacted Society
Transcript of The History of The Camera and How it Has Impacted Society
a boxlike device for holding a film or plate sensitive to light, having an aperture controlled by a shutter that, when opened, admits light enabling an object to be focused, usually by means of a lens, on the film or plate, thereby producing a photographic image.
(dictionary.com) Cameras play an important role in the documentation of history, by providing a record of actual events as they are happening in that moment of time.
Photos are a validation for memories; people with memory disabilities like Alzheimers, ability to look back and remembe loved ones who have passed, reflecting back on memories with family and friends.
"A tangible impact of photography has been the number of people employed in the industry, particularly after the introduction of the 35mm film in the 1920 by the Kodak company. the innovation meant a number of people were needed to sell and service cameras and films. Photography also meant new employment opportunities as photo reporters and editors, and in photographic agencies and libraries." (Dirk Huds)
Cameras became a great tool for scientific research, documented newly discovered species, a tool of document evidence of scientific field trips, was able to capture the people of remote tribes. Cameras later then led to the innovation of brain scanning and assessing human anatomy.
Cameras and photography have become a hobby and a passion for many people. Who enjoy capturing something to remember and creating something extraordinary out of the everyday. But most of all people love cameras for the ability to retain information of the world around them.
" The impact on professional photographers has been dramatic. Once upon a time a photographer wouldn't dare waste a shot unless they were virtually certain it would work." (Tom de Castella) Cameras have altered the way we remember and we begin to look at photos as confirmation of things we have done and events we have attended. This has resulted in people taking photos of every single moment and everything you have done in a single day, this has increased dramatically because of camera phones. In a way cameras have altered out photographic evidence.
Photos only have the ability to capture a single moment in time and this results to details being left out the situation. They can paint you a scene but that does not mean that it is portrayed accurately. This is because it shows an emotion, but with no words or actions, emotions can be lost and misinterpreted.
Peeping toms have the ability to take photos from farther distances due to long range telephotos lenses, and the act of photographing becomes more than just passive observing.
Paparazzi- invading celebrities private lives, constantly harassing to get a good photo to sell to a tabloid magazine, and use of long range telephoto lenses gives them the opportunity to zoom in to get photos in more private and protective settings. Technologies Can Have Negative Side Effects Keeping Up With The Speed of Technology Change Over Dependence on Technology What does the new medium enhance? What does the new medium make obsolete? The new advancements in camera technology has revived the Polaroid camera. The Polaroid camera has recently been revived with new Polaroid cameras that can show you the image before you print it off. And the idea of instant photos is gaining momentum in interest from teenagers. What does new medium reverse of flip into? Ancient Greek and Chinese philosophers describe the basics foundation of optics and the camera. Observed as far back as the 5th century BC the Camera Obscuras ("Darkened Rooms"), it had been used to form images from the outside onto walls into a dark rooms, by the sunlight shinning through a small hole.
By 16th century: the brightness and clarity of Camera Obscuras is improved due to inserting a simple lens into a enlarged hole. Pinhole Camera The First Photograph Louis Daguerre and The Birth of Modern Photography Negative to Positive Process Tintypes Wet Plate Negative Dry Pate Negatives & Hand-held Camera Flexible Roll Film Colour Photographs Photographic Prints The Box Camera 35mm Camera Polaroid and Instant Camera Disposable Camera What does new medium retrieve from the past? Cameras have changed the way we see things, now with a click of a button on a digital camera you can have 100 different photos of a single event. When back in the days of film you wanted to make sure you got a good and quality shot because you couldn't just check to see how the photo turned out.
Photos on digital cameras also allow instant playback of your photos. This can have a negative impact as if they are not happy of how they are portrayed in the photo it is then deleted and retaken. This can affect someones self-esteem as they are constantly deleting photos and striving for a perfect photo. The technology of lenses of cameras have changed very little in the years but what has changed the most concerning cameras would be the camera bodies that you attach lenses to (DSLR).
With many different camera companies and many different camera versions makes it difficult for a armature photographer to decide which camera to chose and buy, and than the next model will be out next year.
Also what camera to buy digital (point and shoot) or DSLR? If DSLR, which one? As now there are new features added on every new model.
Also the price for photography as a hobby that is not cheap (though the price for DSLR camera have come down in price depending which camera you buy). Price for lenses, memory chips, camera bag, filters, tripods, external flashes, flash diffusers and the list goes on. And once you get past the basic that you get with the camera (body and lens) you'll want to branch out and buy more lenses and different camera accessories to further your hobby of photography. Digital cameras have become a norm that we can't go any where or do anything without documenting it with photographic evidence.
Camera phones have also further enhanced this desire to take multiple photos of everyday things to share with friends. Apps like Instagram and snapchat have made an increase in this behavior . And social media sites like; Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, Flicker and other photo sharing sites have encouraged the sharing of mass photos with friends and family. The advancements and accessibility in cameras enhance the general public desire to take photos and take up the hobby of photography. The new advancements in digital camera technology has made film obsolete, and by extent film developing stores becoming obsolete as well. The new advancements in digital camera technology has flipped into camera phones, snapchat and Instagram. And some point and shoot cameras now have the ability to connect to wifi and post your photos immediately to social media websites. Camera Obscuras "Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham), a great authority on optics in the Middle Ages who lived around 1000AD, invented the first pinhole camera, (also called the Camera Obscura} and was able to explain why the images were upside down. The first casual reference to the optic laws that made pinhole cameras possible, was observed and noted by Aristotle around 330 BC, who questioned why the sun could make a circular image when it shined through a square hole." (Mary Bellis) "On a summer day in 1827, Joseph Nicephore Niepce made the first photographic image with a camera obscura. Prior to Niepce people just used the camera obscura for viewing or drawing purposes not for making photographs. Joseph Nicephore Niepce's heliographs or sun prints as they were called were the prototype for the modern photograph, by letting light draw the picture.
Niepce placed an engraving onto a metal plate coated in bitumen, and then exposed it to light. The shadowy areas of the engraving blocked light, but the whiter areas permitted light to react with the chemicals on the plate. When Niepce placed the metal plate in a solvent, gradually an image, until then invisible, appeared. However, Niepce's photograph required eight hours of light exposure to create and after appearing would soon fade away." (Mary Bellis) "Fellow Frenchman, Louis Daguerre was also experimenting to find a way to capture an image, but it would take him another dozen years before Daguerre was able to reduce exposure time to less than 30 minutes and keep the image from disappearing afterwards.
Louis Daguerre was the inventor of the first practical process of photography. In 1829, he formed a partnership with Joseph Nicephore Niepce to improve the process Niepce had developed.
In 1839 after several years of experimentation and Niepce's death, Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography, naming it after himself - the daguerreotype.
Daguerre's process 'fixed' the images onto a sheet of silver-plated copper. He polished the silver and coated it in iodine, creating a surface that was sensitive to light. Then, he put the plate in a camera and exposed it for a few minutes. After the image was painted by light, Daguerre bathed the plate in a solution of silver chloride. This process created a lasting image, one that would not change if exposed to light.
In 1839, Daguerre and Niepce's son sold the rights for the daguerreotype to the French government and published a booklet describing the process. The daguerreotype gained popularity quickly; by 1850, there were over seventy daguerreotype studios in New York City alone." (Mary Bellis) "The inventor of the first negative from which multiple postive prints were made was Henry Fox Talbot, an English botanist and mathematician and a contemporary of Daguerre.
Talbot sensitized paper to light with a silver salt solution. He then exposed the paper to light. The background became black, and the subject was rendered in gradations of grey. This was a negative image, and from the paper negative, Talbot made contact prints, reversing the light and shadows to create a detailed picture. In 1841, he perfected this paper-negative process and called it a calotype, Greek for beautiful picture." (Mary Bellis) Was patented by Hamilton Smith in 1856. It was a sign that something was about to happen in the world of photography. It was a thin sheet of iron was used to provide a base for light-sensitive material, that would yield a positive image. 1851, Frederick Scoff Archer invented the wet plate negative. He used a viscous soultuion of collodion, he coated glass with light sensitive salts. As it was glass and not paper, it creates a stable and detailed photo. Photography took a drastic turn when sensitized materials could be coated onto glass plates. The wet plates however had to develop quickly before the solution dried. It meant carrying around portable darkrooms. "In 1879, the dry plate was invented, a glass negative plate with a dried gelatin emulsion. Dry plates could be stored for a period of time. Photographers no longer needed portable darkrooms and could now hire technicians to develop their photographs. Dry processes absorbed light quickly so rapidly that the hand-held camera was now possible." (Mary Bellis) Photograph Using the Dry Plate Process 1889, George Eastman invents film with a flexible base, unbreakable and could be rolled. Emulsions coats a cellulose nitrate film base, made mass produced box camera a reality. "The first flexible roll films, dating to 1889, were made of cellulose nitrate, which is chemically similar to guncotton. A nitrate-based film will deteriorate over time, releasing oxidants and acidic gasses. It is also highly flammable. Special storage for this film is required.
Nitrate film is historically important because it allowed for the development of roll films. The first flexible movie films measured 35-mm wide and came in long rolls on a spool. In the mid-1920s, using this technology, 35-mm roll film was developed for the camera. By the late 1920s, medium-format roll film was created. It measured six centimeters wide and had a paper backing making it easy to handle in daylight. This led to the development of the twin-lens-reflex camera in 1929. Nitrate film was produced in sheets (4 x 5-inches) ending the need for fragile glass plates.
Triacetate film came later and was more stable, flexible, and fireproof. Most films produced up to the 1970s were based on this technology. Since the 1960s, polyester polymers have been used for gelatin base films. The plastic film base is far more stable than cellulose and is not a fire hazard.
Today, technology has produced film with T-grain emulsions. These films use light-sensitive silver halides (grains) that are T-shaped, thus rendering a much finer grain pattern. Films like this offer greater detail and higher resolution, meaning sharper images.
Film Speed (ISO) — An arbitrary number placed on film that tells how much light is needed to expose the film to the correct density. Generally, the lower the ISO number, the finer grained and slower a film. ISO means International Standards Organization. This term replaces the old ASA speed indicator. The slower the film, the more light is needed to expose it." (Mary Bellis) Early 1940, commercial colour film was introduced to the market. This film uses the technology of dye-coupled coulours in which a chemical process connects the three dye layers together to create an apparent couloured image. "Traditionally, linen rag papers were used as the base for making photographic prints. Prints on this fiber-base paper coated with a gelatin emulsion are quite stable when properly processed. Their stability is enhanced if the print is toned with either sepia (brown tone) or selenium (light, silvery tone).
Paper will dry out and crack under poor archival conditions. Loss of the image can also be due to high humidity, but the real enemy of paper is chemical residue left by photographic fixer. In addition, contaminants in the water used for processing and washing can cause damage. If a print is not fully washed to remove all traces of fixer, the result will be discoloration and image loss.
Fixer (Hypo)—A chemical, sodium thiosulfate, used to remove residual silver halides (grain) from films and prints when processing them. Fixer "fixes" the remaining silver halides in place on either film or prints. Fixer is also called hypo.
The next innovation in photographic papers was resin-coating, or water-resistant paper. The idea is to use normal linen fiber-base paper and coat it with a plastic (polyethylene) material, making the paper water-resistant. The emulsion is placed on a plastic covered base paper. The problem with resin-coated papers is that the image rides on the plastic coating, and is susceptible to fading.
At first color prints were not stable because organic dyes were used to make the color image. The image would literally disappear from the film or paper base as the dyes deteriorate. Kodachrome, dating to the first third of the 20th century, was the first color film to produce prints that could last half a century. Now, new techniques are creating permanent color prints lasting 200 years or more. New printing methods using computer-generated digital images and highly stable pigments, offer permanency for color photographs." (Mary Bellis) Digital Camera Recent Advancements "George Eastman. a dry plate manufacturer from Rochester, New York, invented the Kodak camera. For $22.00, an amateur could purchase a camera with enough film for 100 shots. After use, it was sent back to the company, which then processed the film. The ad slogan read, "You press the button, we do the rest." A year later, the delicate paper film was changed to a plastic base, so that photographers could do their own processing.
Eastman's first simple camera in 1888 was a wooden, light-tight box with a simple lens and shutter that was factory-filled with film. The photographer pushed a button to produce a negative. Once the film was used up, the photographer mailed the camera with the film still in it to the Kodak factory where the film was removed from the camera, processed, and printed. The camera was then reloaded with film and returned." (Mary Bellis) "As early as 1905, Oskar Barnack had the idea of reducing the format of film negatives and then enlarging the photographs after they had been exposed. As development manager at Leica, he was able to put his theory into practice. He took an instrument for taking exposure samples for cinema film and turned it into the world's first 35 mm camera: the 'Ur-Leica'." (Mary Bellis) Invented by Edwin Herbert Land. The first Polaroid camera became available to the public in November of 1948. He had a one-step process to develop and print photos instantly. The disposable camera was introduced in 1986. This was a single use camera, whose parts were later recycled by the people who manufacture these cameras. Digital camera was first demonstrated by Canon in 1984, and showed the first digital electric still camera. DSLR cameras have become more advanced
point and shoot cameras also has had improvements on different features; some can go under water others connect to wifi and instantly share photos to social media
Polaroid has also made a comeback with new cameras, that allow you to see the image before it prints and do some minor editing