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Transcript of Roaring Twenties
They were able to supply Britain and France
Agriculture expanded during WWI but countries in Europe started growing their own products and did not need the U.S
Over production led to negative effects in the economy
During this time, many farmers move into the city due to the failure of agriculture
1/5 of American population made their money by using the land
Impact on the southerners was worse since agriculture was a primary source of income
Low wages to workers
Most farms only focused on one product
Dust storms destroyed the soil which produced
Farm wage was 1/3 of industrial worker
depressive state by the end of 1919. By: Hellen Palencia
Carlos Sanchez Roaring Twenties Stock Market Crash - Technology was improving and people expected the economy to rise
- Billions of dollars were invested in the stock market
- October 24, 1929 stock prices began to fall and fall
- By the end of the day New York Stock Exchange had lost 4 billion dollars
- Thousands were left with no money
- Stock values dropped by billions of dollars
- Banks failed and the Great Depression began Agriculture Immigration American Union Bank 25M “New Immigrants”
Immigrant surge during this time was distinctive in size, demographics, and impact on American culture and society.
More than 80% of arrivals after 1890 were so-called “New Immigrants”
Also departed in large numbers.
Most New Immigrants did not want to stay.
Unlike Old Immigrants New Immigrants were unskilled and much poorer and uneducated.
Mostly male and mostly young
Hoped to earn enough money during their stay in America to be able to afford an increased standard living. People were left in the streets and with no money at all
Many committed suicide They would rather die than face financial ruin
Banks were overwhelmed with people demanding to get their money back and many could not meet their demands
Banks had to close down and went out of business
October 25th - stock market mini crash
October 29th – Black Tuesday: worst day in stock market history
Some people thought the stock crashing was a way to get rich
Prices of everything went up
Half of the banks could not recover from the stock market crash and failed since people could not pay back their loans.
Buy stocks on Margin: you can't afford full price
buyer puts down their own money and they borrow the remaining from a broker
Prices falls lower than loan amount received and buyer is demanded to pay back loan immediately. Migrants put down roots in America to boost the foreign – born population of the country to record levels.
By 1920 42% of New Yorkers were foreign – born; 41% of Chicagoan; 42% of San Franciscans.
Little to no English
Forged close – knit communities.
Ethnic shops, markets, banks, clubs, cinemas, and radio stations (in mother tongue).
Americans began back lashing then creating a melting pot.
Melting pot: wanting to make immigrants into good Americans through work, education, and social reform.
1921 Emergency Quota Act and 1924 Immigration Act imposed for the first time a limit on the number of immigrants allowed to enter the US The KKK dominated the south before the 1920's
Red Scare refers to the fear of Communism in the U.S.
American's became scared of the communist after they overthrew the royal family in Russia and murdered them
Fear of communism increase when a series of attacks occurred in 1919
On New Years, 1920, over 6000 people accused of being communists were put in jail and were searched for guns in their own homes Red Scare The Russian civil war started as Vladimir Lenin’s rebels versus Alexander Kerensky’s government
The whites rebelled against Kerensky’s government
Communism began in Russia and planned on spreading communism to other countries.
The United States took side with the whites who were against Kerensky’s
If you didn't show any signs of patriotism you were accused of being an anarchist and communists in the U.S. Palmer was appointed the 50th U.S attorney general by Wilson
American casualties after the war were common
Labor Unions were striking
Over 3,000 strikes occurred after Palmer became attorney
Palmer began to arrest people now known as “Palmer Raids”The prisoners were kept in unsanitary and harsh conditions
Out of the thousands arrested less than 50 had evidence to keep them in jail
The Palmer Raids were later declared unconstitutional Resources http://www.dhahranbritish.com/history/A9_Farming20s.htm
http://www.shmoop.com/1920s/immigration.html Established a new National Origins system the created different quotas for immigrants from each country.
Strict 1924 act imposed a very mild restriction on immigration from Northern and Western Europe.
Still allowing 140,000 arrivals per year from those countries
Immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe was limited to just 22,000/year. (97% reduction) Flappers “Flapper” first appeared in Great Britain after World War I
Use to describe young girls who were still somewhat awkward in movement who had not yet entered womanhood.
In the June 1922 edition of the Atlantic Monthly, G. Stanley Hall described the evasive term of a flapper.
“The dictionary set me right by defining the word as a fledgling, yet in the nest, and vainly attempting to fly while its wings have only pinfeathers; and I recognized that the genius of 'slanguage' had made the squab the symbol of budding girlhood.” Authors such as F. Scott Fitzgerald and artists such as John Held Jr. first used the term to the US.
Fitzgerald described a flapper as a “lovely, expensive, and about nineteen” with unbuckled galoshes that made a flapping noise.
Flappers' image consisted of drastic and shocking changes in women's clothing and hair.
More free in movement.
Northern, urban, single, young, and middle – class women.
Women sought to eliminate social double standards.
Sigmund Freud's declaration that the libido was one of the most natural of human needs seemed to give the green light to explore.
Expression of woman's rights.
Women were tired of double standards. Electricity At the beginning of the 1920's, 35% of the population had their homes wired for electricity. 2% were farms.
By 1929, 68% of the population had their homes wired for electricity. 9% were farms.
Electricity led to technology advances
Technology led to inventions like the band-aid, traffic signal, scotch tape, and first car radio
Hot and cold running water was now available for everyone not just the upper class population
Plumbing systems were established and indoor bathrooms were becoming more common
“Electrify your home” Campaign began
Your house was not electrically modern without appliances like an iron, doorbell, porch lights, dishwasher, heater, vacuum, washing machine, oven and hair dryer. Better distribution, motors, new controls, and trans – Atlantic telephone service.
Tungsten lamp offered better, cheaper, and longer – lasting lighting.
Electrical refrigerators, ranges, and flood of modern electrical domestic appliances opened up a new world in electricity.
Bell Telephone Laboratories' mechanism for recording sound electrically; Westinghouse's de-ion circuit breaker; the development of the expansion-type circuit breaker (Fritz Kesselring of Siemens); Vannevar Bush's product integraph; Martin Hochstadter's three-core power cable; Luigi Emanueli's oil-filled cables; WA Whitney and EB Wedmore's air-blast circuit breaker.
A decade after these discoveries was the stock market crash.
Increase in horsepower consumption from half a million in 1900 to 18 million in the early 20s. self made millionaire in the mining industry
unsuccessful president in the United States
successful Secretary of Commerce from 1921-1928
Great Depression happened during his presidency
“Hoovervilles” shanty towns made up of nation's unemployed and homeless
elected as a president in 1928
promised that "we shall soon, with the help of God, be in sight of the day when poverty will be banished from this nation." 2
Depression began with stock market crash in 1929
was a republican Herbert Hoover Prohibition Lasted for 13 long years
Liquor was declared illegal in the United States
manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol was illegal
also known as the Noble Experiment
18th amendment is the ban of liquor from 1919 to 1933
infamous political experiment
carried out when gangsters, mafia, and other antisocial elements where present in the society
government decided to take this action to get the lawlessness under control Prohibition 36 states approved the amendment and was signed on January 16, 1919
the law was effective until one year later, 1920
another aim was to help protect woman and children from alcoholism
The Women's Christian Temperance Union played a major role in making liquor illegal
Alcoholism was an issue since the American Revolution.
since the 19th, people wanted a law for prohibition Using information from 1920's, relate conclusions to current political, economic, and social issues. Why is the "Roaring Twenties" viewed as the transition into modernity? Economic: It started with the agriculture which was the primary resource of income. Industrialization took over and over production began to force farmers to find another source of labor. Many farmers no longer could sustain their farms and make profit out of it.
Political: President Hoover was blamed for the stock market failure just as president Obama is being blamed for all the economic failure we experience. Unlike Hoover, Obama has made sure to place policies that prevent the country to fall into a second Great Depression. The Roaring Twenties was a transition into modernity because it was a breakthrough for many aspects of every day life. For example, women they gained more freedom as flappers, as a result of rebelling against the double standards between men and women. In electricity many new inventions were created to enhance the living standards in an everyday home, these advances made living and working easier.
Ultimately, the Roaring Twenties was a transition into modernity because it was the breakthrough period for all aspects of life. Indepence, advances, and downfalls created today's world.