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Conflicting Forces in Japan
Transcript of Conflicting Forces in Japan
Conflicting Forces in Japan
Hirohito - Emperor who reigned from 1923 to 1989 (63 years) During these years he created appalling tragedies and remarkable successes. Specifically during the 1920s and 1930s the pressures of extreme nationalism and economic upheaval set Japan on militaristic and expansionist path that would soon engulf all of Asia
In the 1920s Japan moved toward greater prosperity and democracy. Elected members of the Diet which was the japanese parliament exercised their power. In 1925 ALL men were allowed to vote. Women however did not get the right to vote until 1945. Even though women rights were increasing, there social status still remained below that of men. In 1922 Japan signed an agreement to limit the size of its navy because its expansion began to affect its relationship with Western powers.
The Nationalist Reaction
In the early 1930s nationalists were winning support from the people for foreign conquests and a tough stand against the Western powers. Military leaders plotted to overthrow the government and in 1936 briefly occupied the center of Tokyo. To please nationalists the government cracked down on socialists and suppressed most democratic freedoms, During the 1930s Japan took advantage of China's civil war to increase its influence there. This caused World War II to break out in Europe. In 1936 Japan allied with two superpowers, Italy and Germany.
Militarists in Power
Hirohito became the new Emperor of Japan and promised "to preserve world peace and benefit the welfare of the human race"
Ultranationalist - extreme devotion to or advocacy of the interests of a nation, especially regardless of the effect on any other nations
Manchuria - A northern chinese province that was rich with natural resources that Japan wanted to conquer
Liberal Changes in the 1920s
In 1939, The Great Depression rippled across the Pacific, striking Japan with devastating force. Trade suffered as foreign buyers could no longer afford to purchase japanese silks and other exports. Unemployment was high and many people specifically peasants starved and died. Economic disaster fed the discontent of the leading military officials and extreme nationalists. They condemned politicians for agreeing western demands to stop overseas expansion.
The second Sino-Japanese War (July 7th 1937- September 9th 1945) was a military conflict fought mainly between China and Japan. Some economic help came from Germany, The Soviet Union and the United States. After the japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 China officially joined the allies and issued a formal declaration war on Japan this merged the Sino-japanese war into the greater conflict of World War II.
Major Event Continued
The war was the result of decades long Japanese imperialists policy aimed at expanding its influence politically and militarily in order to get raw material and other economic resources in the area, particularity food and labor. Before 1937 China and Japan fought in small localized engagements. The last of these engagements was the Marco Polo Bridge incident of 1937 which marked the beggining of total war between the two countries.
Connection to Nationalism
When emperor Hirohito inherited the throne on 1926 Japan was enclosed in a struggle between liberals and leftist and conservatives on the other side. In 1925 male suffrage was introduced increasing the electorate from 3.3 million to 12.5 million. In the first world war Japan joined the allied powers played only a minor role in fighting german colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919 Japan proposed a racial equality clause. In 1924 for example the us congress passed the exclusion act that prohibited further immigration to japan.
Connection to Nationalism Continued
The rise of China both economically and militarily along with North Korean nuclear ambitions have prompted a number of japanese groups to call into question the limitations on the role of the military. This has fostered a new nationalism in Japan that may portend a movement away from its previous method of conducting international policy namely checkbook diplomacy.
What was the emperors name in Japan for 63 years?
What is ultranationalism or nationalism?
Manchuria was a _____________ that was rich with natural resources that japan wanted to conquer.
Where is Manchuria?
One of the only pictures of the Paris Peace Conference