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Covalent Bonding Presentation
Transcript of Covalent Bonding Presentation
Electrons repel each other to determine the shape and bond angles.
Hybridization mixes orbitals of covalently bond atoms Electronegativity! in our words... Sharing is Caring! what is VSEPR? Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion.
Represented by orbitals and force within the shape.
Arranges shared and not shared electron pairs around an atom
Shape determined physical and chemical properties . What is the
shape of a
VSEPR? VSEPR Shapes a. Atoms can combine into molecules by SHARING electrons which forms covalent bonds. There are six shapes that are all different.
Each shapes makes angles and have different orbitals. Linear Atom Bond 180 angle
It has an sp orbitals VSEPR SHAPES Trigonal Planar 120 degree angle
it has an sp3 orbital - determines electron affinity! - how likely an atom will accept an electron Why do atoms form? To stabilize elements
by the octet rule
of stability! Polarity Clarity Polar Covalent : unequal sharing of electrons Atoms SHARE electrons to fulfill octet rule What is a covalent bond? Works with non-metallic elements Higher electroneg: Covalent bonds
make molecules! Two or more covalently bonded molecules S - 0.4 1.7 Lower Electrogneg : S+ pulls electron closer neg charge example: H2O H - O 2.20 3.44 S+ S- May the force... ...be with you! Write it out! Non- Polar Covalent: Polarity Clarity equal sharing of electrons < 0.4 Lewis Dot Structure But how do atoms have
all 8 electrons
when there is less
valence electrons needed? The Wonderful World of
Bonding Pairs Single Bonds (Sigma Bonds)
Group 7A; need one
more electron Double Bonds
Group 6A; need two more electrons Triple Bonds
Group 5A; need three more electrons Cracking the
nomenclature of covalent bonds ! naming covalent bonds is quite different
from naming ionic compounds California State
Chemistry Standard 2. Atoms have the ability to form bonds by electrostatic forces between electrons and protons and between atoms and molecules. Take the name of
the 1st element Use the primary root
of the element and suffix
"-ide" for element #2 b. Common examples of covalent bonds are H2, CH4, NH3, H2CCH2, N2, Cl2 and big biological molecules : carbohydrates, protein, fat and DNA. count the # of atoms
& give prefixes based
on it Involving Dissolving Let's say that water is our polar solvent... remember: opposites attract! H2O molecules rearrange to accomodate the H and O attraction. O is slightly negative, H is slightly positive the pos/neg polar solute is attracted
to the pos/neg solvent & is able to spread THUS DISSOLVING! Non-Polar vs. Polar Solutions. Let's say, we put a non-polar solute
in polar water. Prefixes used in
chemical nomenclature no charge in nonpolar atoms
not attracted to polar solvent Does not spread or dissolve CCl4=carbon tetra-chloride
AS2O3= diarsenic trioxide
CO= carbon monoxide
NF3= nitrogen trifluoride Examples:
never use the prefix mono
for the first element For Example: not monocarbon monooxide,
but carbon monoxide Disclaimers! drop final letter of prefix when
element name begins with a vowel (1)= mono
(5)=penta Prefixes (6) = hexa
(8) = octa
(9) = nona
(10) =deca Why are biological
molecules covalent? Because... they contain C, H, N, O, P the elements they are composed
of have electronegativities that
are close together hence they share electron
accept electrons Polar Charge= partial positive
and partial negative at each end of