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IDS: Land Rover Mountain Biking

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Alyce Kohler

on 4 February 2016

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Transcript of IDS: Land Rover Mountain Biking

Evident that he takes a lot fo equipment with him on a ride. Needs the space tp transport it as well as get the right media to document his ride.
BBQ more of a social meal, to interact with friends and take a proper break. Very English.
Something very easy to use and very easy to throw away
No set times for having a break - go with the flow to see how he feels
Interview with Will, aged 20 from Surrey
Builds his own trails, to give a unique and indepdenant experience
Rides a lot! Especially during summer. Mainly rides near home during the weekend, due to school (and now being at University and not being at home so often)
Uses a Land Rover to transport his equipment for a ride
Building trails in the winter and riding them in summer so the weathe is good for when it comes to riding
Tyre Technology
There are many different aspects that affect a bike tyres performance including its ability to hold air, the construction of the tyre, contact patch and the air pressure.

Holding Air -
The standard method for holding air in a tyre is to use a tube as it is easy to repair as well as it being easier and cheaper to replace a tube. Tubeless tyres are more suitable for a range of applications and also provide a lower tyre pressure for better traction. Their disadvantage is that they can be heavier and are also harder to repair on the move.

Construction -
Typically a nylon casing holds the tyre together and supports the load. The material is placed inside the tyre so that it overlaps under the tread area. Nylon can come in a variety of qualities and threads per inch (tpi). The higher the tpi, the lower the weight of the tyre as less rubber needs to be used.



FONTS
Mountain Biking
Tom
Alderman
Ellie
Bainton
Katie
French
Tom
Berry
Alyce
Kohler

BRIEF
"Design a desirable branded product that allows hot food to be eaten on location outdoors."
THE 5 W's & 1 H
HOW?
WHO?
Mountain biking is the sport of cycling off-road, often on rough terrain, on specialised bicycles. These bikes share many similarities with other bikes however they tend to be manufactured to be more robust and durable in order to enhance performance over uneven terrain.
WHAT?
Mountain Biking is a very social activity; most people who start riding are introduced to the sport by one of their friends.
Its also a sport that heavily relys on enthusiasm. A lot of the runs that are popular, have been gorilla built by other riders rather than specific companies. The sport wouldn't really exist if it weren't for the social aspect of it.
From online research, the main things that riders get from mountain biking are adrenaline rushes, fitness, a sense of freedom and a social aspect. More reasons as to how and why riders get into the sport could be discovered in our primary research interview stage.
WHY?
Mountain Biking is an all year round sport

Pro Seasons tend to happen April-September (USA)

Some big bike centre's like "Dale's Bike Centre" and even the Forrestry Commission (UK) provide cafe's and food on routes

Food tends too be eaten during the ride, half way through the ride


WHEN?
WHERE?
Summary of Secondary Research
GAPS ANALYSIS
INTERVIEW 1
TRANSCRIPT
SUMMARY
INTERVIEW 4
TRANSCRIPT
SUMMARY
INTERVIEW 2
TRANSCRIPT
SUMMARY
INTERVIEW 5
TRANSCRIPT
SUMMARY
INTERVIEW 3
TRANSCRIPT
SUMMARY
Summary of Primary Research
CONSENT FORMS
BRAND
IDEOLOGY
TANGIBLE QUALITIES
INTANGIBLE QUALITIES
EXISTING PRODUCTS
Summary of
Brand Research

CONTEXT
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED
All of these materials fit into the constraints and would therefore provide the required elements for a cooking device used outside, where there may be a risk of it being dropped and smashed. These materials will have to be used in combination with each other so that the product is shock absorbent, but can still withstand a cooking heat, as well as be a thermal insulator. Using materials in combination will prevent any warping via Tg or melting, so the desired form and style associated with the Land Rover Brand remain throughout the products life cycle.
MATERIAL
SELECTION

Summary of Context
POLITICAL
SOCIAL
ECONOMICAL
TECHNOLOGY
ENVIRONMENTAL
P.E.E.S.T.
Polypropylene (EPP) is a very good choice of material as it has an extremely low rate of thermal conductivity therefore can maintain a temperature irrespective of its external surroundings. This also helps to prevent the food from drastic temperature variations. The table supports these statements as EPP has the lowest thermal conductivity value of 0.035 compared to aluminum with a value of a high value of 230.

For liquid based foods, Thermos technology uses a vacuum between the inner container and outer shell. The vacuum ensures there are no air particles to transfer heat. However a lot of the heat is lost through the cap therefore this would be an important design consideration.

Aluminum can be used as it reflects any light and will hold in any hot air produced from cooking the food. However as it is a metal it typically has a high thermal conductivity, the measure of how much heat is lost or transferred by a material, which allows the heat to escape so would not be suitable over a long period of time.

Ceramic is particularly suited to withstanding high temperatures but is also very brittle thus it would not work well on an outdoor product that would likely be bashed about.

Overall a developed concept of the thermos flask would be the best insulator as it would be most suitable to the type of food our user would be eating and is also durable for our environment due to the stainless steel external. A combination of EPP around the cap and a vacuum could make the product a better insulator.
History and origins of Land Rover
Land Rover is a british car manufacturing company founded in 1978. The first car produced was the Series One, which was later developed into the Series Two in 1958 then Series Three. In the beginning Land Rover focused on designing vehicles to replace horses on the farm with marketing convincing farmers that the Series One can go “above and beyond”

Land Rover then produced vehicles for the war and focused on proving that their cars can go anywhere. In 1970 they produced the first Range Rover which had a v8 engine. They used this new car in the new Camel Trophy to show how versatile it is.

The first Range Rover was introduced to compete with the growing luxury 4x4 market in the U.S. In 1989 Land Rover produced the Discovery to compete with the Toyota Land Cruiser.

On Land Rovers 50th anniversary they introduced the Free-lander which was targeted at more of a sport market. This was the start of their brand image primarily compromising of utility and sport vehicles.

70% of all Land Rovers made are still in use today. Their cars are used worldwide for defence, NGOs and utility.

The fourth generation of Land Rover which was released in 2012 has positioned the brand image in the luxury SUV market with new technology and design.




GOVERNMENT CYCLESCHEME
Cyclescheme is a provider for the Governments Cycle to Work initiative in which bikes are tax free in exchange for using them to ride to and from work. The employer buys the biked at full retail price, the balance is then recovered from a reduction in the employees’ wages. However the employee saves a minimum of 25% off the full retail price whilst the employer benefits from a National Insurance Contribution saving of up to 13.8%. Over 572,000 bikes have been bought already showing that the scheme and cycling has proved popular across the country. Although this is not out target UTE, the overall enthusiasm for the activity and the press that this produces towards cycling can only be beneficial.
BORIS BIKES
‘Boris Bikes’ are public bicycles that can be hired in London, they have been popularly named after the mayor of London at the time, Boris Johnson. The aim of the scheme is to reduce traffic on the roads, enable users to get around the city faster and promote health and wellbeing. As can be seen from the article, a similar scheme is being considered in other places with our target market, students, being a convincing attribute. The large publicity on this scheme and the popularity of the bikes helps to promote cycling as a whole and could lead many onto engaging with the activity on a sportier level.
LEGISLATION
Other government legislation on cycling includes the Highway Code and the General Technical Regulation of British Cycling. The British Cycling website holds the handbooks for all forms of cycling including mountain biking which outlines the rules and regulations. As stated in the document, it is compulsory to wear a helmet during the activity and strongly advised to wear other protective equipment highlighting the importance of legislation on rider’s safety. Similarly there are specific rules about racing bikes on public rights of way in order to protect both the rider and public from any serious collisions.
Land Rovers brand image and ideology has changed slightly over the years. In the beginning they believed in creating vehicles that were versatile and adventurous. They showed this by having their vehicles drive in the most extreme conditions. In its early years, the brand was described as plucky, strong and up for a challenge. Today’s Land Rover is more about luxury and sport, producing vehicles in the higher price bracket with a desire to serve in any condition. One idea has remained constant throughout the brand which is that they go “above and beyond”
Can be injection moulded, shock absorbent. Glass TransistionTemp of 105, the temperature ABS becomes brittle. Melting point 80 degrees. A density of 1080kg/m3. Thermal Insulator. WaterProof
Can be injection moulded, a Glass Transition Temp of 60 degrees and a melting point of 260 degrees and a density of 2150kgm3. Thermal Insulator. Waterproof
Maintains chemical stability over a wide range of tempreatures up to 93.333 degrees, resists degradation and is a thermal insulator. When used in tempreatures below 0 it become stiffer and harder and becomes none functional below -40. Water Resistant

Commonly used in food containers. Can be Injection moulded and has a density of 1380kg/m3. Melting point of 250 degrees and a Glass TransitionTemp of 70. Thermal Insulator. WaterProof
Can be injection moulded, a melting point of 240 degrees, however, if it reaches 240 degrees and is then returned to below 0 quickly it becomes rigid and brittle. It has a density of 1050kg/m3. Thermal Insulator. WaterProof
Can be injection moulded, a melting point of 343 degrees and a Glass TransitionTemp of 143 degrees. It has a density of 1320kg/m3. Thermal Insulator. WaterProof.
SUMMARY OF INTERVIEWS
KEY INSIGHTS
INITIAL PRODUCT EVALUATION
HEATING SOURCES
INSULATION TECHNOLOGY
BIKE TECHNOLOGY
Cross country
Trail riding
All mountain (enduro)
Downhill
Freeride
Dirt jumping
Most common are trail and cross country
Come in all shapes and sizes
Riders with high endurance tend to be cross country riders
Downhill riders tend to be more explosive sprint athletes
In all types of mountain biking there are categories for all ages and abilities

The type of mountain biking being undertaken, depends how much cyclists tend to carry with them. Riders doing downhill biking on trails mainly drive to where the trail starts and then start biking from there, meaning they tend to carry quite little with them. Quite a few downhill trails are located on ski runs during the off-season periods, so riders can take the ski lifts up the mountains. In these cases the runs are relatively short, so riders tend not to take rucksacks with them. On the other hand, cross-country riders tend to go on much longer trips, and are therefore much more likely to travel with backpacks filled with all the equipment they could need. For these cross-country riders there is a strong ethic of self-reliance, often due to traveling so far away from civilisation. For this reason many bikers will carry backpacks of water bladders, essential tools for fixing their bike and possibly emergency supplies.
There are many subcategories of bike
All bikes tend to have knobbly tires around 2 inches wide
Cross country bikes tend to be very lightweight
Downhill bikes tend to be much more robust, have longer travel suspensions, tougher wheels, tires and a different frame geometry

Overall the best heating source is generally is a gas canister as ultimately they are compact, easy to use and cook quickly which is key for our target market who want to get on with their activity. The main issue with this type of fuel is that it is expensive so it would be important to design a product that would use the fuel efficiently. An interesting alternative would be to use a chemical heater as it does not use a flame which is key for our environment due to legislation that bans open flames in most wooded areas. This source of heating is also very easy to use, the major design consideration would have to be how the user would transport or get rid of the excess waste produced.
http://www.jbpackaging.co.uk/blog/reliable-thermal-insulation.html
imba.org.uk/research-report/uk-mountainbike-usage/
As can be seen from the table, there are a range of mountain bike users; from families with young children to more serious athletes. Although the enthusiasts are one of the smaller populated audiences, they ride over twice the amount than other users do. This makes them a good target market as they are more likely to invest in products, such as a cooking device to make a regular experience easier and more enjoyable.
Mountain biking can be an activity for recreational purposes or as a competitive sport; opening it up to a large age range as a high level of fitness is not always required, depending on the intensity of biking. This is why we have decided on an age range of 16 – 50 years allowing us to open up the market for newcomers on the scene, and to those that do it on the weekends as a stress relief from their everyday job.
The Atherton family is a prime example of users who would fall into our target market. As a British mountain biking family, Rachel Atherton holds numerous championship titles and her two brothers also compete to a high level. They are clearly extremely athletic, which does not necessarily fit the whole of our target market, however their dedication to the sport and frequency with which they train is our primary target user. Additionally, the publicity they generate helps to promote mountain biking to a wider audience, hence broadening the user group.
Due to the nature of the sport, there is a greater percentage of male riders compared to females. This does present a ‘Lad’ culture within some clubs, however there are also many female riders who are more successful within competitions compared to men; Rachel Atherton is an example of this.
Land Rover is known for an encompassing ‘Britishness’ feel to all their products. Their aim is to place this heritage and dependable sense into the user through their advertising and established reputation. The brand does well to cover both a sense of luxury for example through the limited edition Evoque, designed by Victoria Beckham, as well as the built for purpose rugged military vehicles. Although juxtaposing products, the context and application behind the designs both ensure quality, a key component to gaining the consumers trust.
Advertising is a major contributor in trying to evoke these emotions and values. Through advertising and brand placement, for example in the new James Bond movie ‘Spectre’, Land Rover has managed to incorporate a feeling of adventure as well as security to the user. The video shows a range of vehicles including the Range Rover Sport and Land Rover Defender, the contrast highlights how the values work across all their products. Furthermore by showing the vehicles in an extreme environment but still handling well across the snow, the user subconsciously feels a sense of exploration whilst holding trust in the product that they would be safe.
There are many qualities to Land Rover vehicles that are prominent throughout all their products. They are typically known for being spacious vehicles as can be seen from the large seats and accommodating leg room, this is the same for all their models. In a similar way they have a high ride height that can vary depending on the environment or application, this enables all their vehicles to tackle differing terrain to roads, although the defender is the best at this.
As can be seen from the images of the three different models, Sport, Evoque and Defender, all the forms have a rugged nature about them, even the Evoque which is the most streamlined of all of them. This continuity of form ensures the relevance of their brand and distinguishes them from other companies. The Evoque suits our target market as it has a sporty and young feel about it due to the sleek form whilst still maintaining the rugged nature.
The interior design of Land Rover is a major tangible quality throughout all their models. The defenders interior is much more basic and has a ‘hard’ quality to it whilst the Evoque tries to replicate racer style seats with a level of comfort and luxury. Land Rover are also known for doing special edition cars for example the Holland and Holland interior. The handle of the car had the classic metal imprint that is found on all Holland and Holland sport guns. This intricate detailing ensured that Land Rover was encasing Holland and Holland’s traditional brand within their own.
23% of the UK adult population own a mountain bike
5.5 million UK who off-road at least once per year
Our outdoor eating device is designed to be used in the context of a mountain biking trip, on top of which we have associated our product with the brand identity of Land Rover.

We are looking to explore the opportunities to enrich the experience of cooking and eating, for individuals who go mountain biking.

Both primary and secondary research has been undertaken in order to develop and assess the desires within our user, context and brand.

(According to http://www.mbr.co.uk/news/20-best-mountain-bike-trails-uk-322684)
The 20 best Mountain Biking trails in the UK
The main areas highlighted include;
Snowdonia, Wales
Scottish Hihglands,
Peak District & Cumbria, England
South West England

Most trails highlighted are within a National Park.
Downhill mountain bikes
15-50 years old
Rugged style of Land Rover
Functional over sexy
Bear Grylls/ Daniel Craig/ Lara Croft
Sexy aesthetics
Want to be healthy/fitter
Quite 'laddy'
Athertons - aspirational mountain biking family - BRITISH

WHO?
WHAT?
Food: high energy & high protein
Quick snack half way through OR sat in car for half an hour eating before carrying on
warm/hot food

WHERE?
Heating up on the move by exothermic reaction
Heating whilst biking or in between runs
cold/wet - roots and rocks mean uneven terrain
In car - attached to cigarrette lighter?
Make it suitable to sit in the car
Could boil water as easy power source
3hrs cycling burns 2000 calories

During descent of mountain - move off to side to grab a quick snack

WHEN?
HOW?
Don't currently cook - can't have food because need to carry a device that balances on the bike

Warm them up
Higher amount of energy
Warm hands - stop grips on handle from freezing
Alternatives
sugar food
energy bars
cold food
energy drinks
high protein food

WHY?
6 TYPES OF
MOUNTAIN BIKING:
THE RIDER:
THE BIKE:
Definition of Mountain Biking:
SOCIAL
POLITICAL
Government cycling programmes
Borris Bikes: gives employers money off (docounts) to cycle to work
Must wear helmet at all times - Oxford
ECONOMICAL
In the US, each states' Government can rule as to where mountain bikes can ride
Less people driving = more cycling due to fuel costs and government programmes
RECESSION
Ski resorts - off season. Mountain bikers go so this boosts sales in the summer months
Competition Riding - booested sales of products shown in TV advertisements
DANGEROUS! Can injure/break bones: secondary effect on health costs and services e.g. NHS.
High insurance costs
Careers = competition money
costs to get there
costs to enter
winnings
In the UK there are on average about 10 competitions a month. These range across many different types of mounatin biking, from downhill to cross country. There are races suitable for all skill levels; these range from friendly races where it is all about socialising with like-minded people, to highly competive atmospheres. If there is not a suitable race in the UK there is bound to be one in another country, as races happen all over the world, at all times of the year.
2012 London Olympics
competitive riding
aired on TV
'Lad' culture of biking - popular magazines e.g. MB UK, Tv programmes
Atherton Family: popular mountain biking family who set trends in branded clothing and items they use
Land Rover featured in new James Bond film gives the
Defender more of a high class
Staycation - staying in the UK for holidays e.g. camping. Increase in outdoor cooking equiptment
Internet shopping makes things easy and quic to buy. Customer reviews can be helpful
Youtube: viral mountain biking videos
Land Rovers= big cars which can fit bikes and equitment inside etc.
TECHNOLOGICAL
High maintenance of cycling equiptment - costs to buy equiptment are high. Visible trends in clothing etc.
ENVIRONMENTAL
Destroying terrain/environment
Illegal in some places
Environemntal issues with fuel mean more people are cycling
Land Rover:
Old Rover > Evoke
Old = less fuel efficient but Evoke = environmentally friendly as lighter

Legislation on cooking outdoors
naked flames etc
waste of food packaging
Certain areas not allowed to cycle in order to preserve enrionment
Industry leading sustainable innovation
Transitioning to a low carbon world
Conserve natural resources
Reducing emissions
Sustainable materials
Improve fuel efficiency
Reducing impact from manufcture
New technology evolving e.g. slow puncture tyres. Constantly improving mountain biking e.g. carbon fibre
Heating element needs large power supple
Materials such as carbon fibre
Land Rover e.g. Evoke constantly evolving

James Bond has futuristic gadgets
Well-Known
Reputable
Exploration
Traditional
Quality
Distinguished
British
Heritage
Trustworthy
Dependable
"The Secretary of State for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs has responsibility for forestry in England"
The Forresrty Commission (England), have a number of set trails for Mountain Biking. From tough red and black graded trails to bike skills parks, bike shops and other facilities are located on these sites. These are available for riders in order to ride in a safe place where the environment will not be at risk.
(http://www.forestry.gov.uk/forestry/INFD-6QHHV3)
SUMMER
WINTER
WEATHER:
Wind (can act as a training aid)
Puddles
Mud
Roots and rocks cannot be avoided
Lots of clothing layers including thick winter gloves
Slippery - easy to fall so makes it more dangerous
TERRAIN:
Off-road trails may be too wet/muddy to ride,so can go through urban areas instead
Skate parks may of use both indoor and outdoor
Quarries - lack of mud but wet!
WEATHER:
Can be very hot - important to stay cool and hydrated
Dry
Important to keep your body cool by pouring water over yourself
Wear less clothing - can wear cooling/heating vests
Ride earlier in the morning or later in the day to avoid too much heat
Less oxygen available in summer so riders ride slower and with more difficulty
TERRAIN:
Dry
No need to worry about water, mud or other limitations
Amount of sunshine is highest in May with around 185 hours of sunshine during the 31 day month, and the lowest in December with around 45 hours of sunshine during the 31 day month
THE LAKE DISTRICT
www.metoffice.gov.uk
Average Rainfall hits 230.4mm in the winter months, and an average of 69.5mm in the summer months
Average Temperature peaks between 0° and 6° in the winter months and averages between 10° and 19° in the summer months. January is the coldest
Average 8 days of snowfall in January and 0 days of snowfall in June and July
Amount of wind gust averages as 73 knots in Janurary and 40 knots in June
months and July is the warmest. Ground frost occurs on around 50-130 days per year
Amount of sunshine is highest in May with around 180 hours of sunshine during the 31 day month, and the lowest in December with around 20 hours of sunshine during the 31 day month
SCOTTISH HIGHLANDS
www.metoffice.gov.uk
Average Rainfall hits 150mm in the winter months, and an average of 65mm in the summer months
Average Temperature peaks between -1° and 5° in the winter months and averages between 8° and 15° in the summer months. January and February
Average of up to 14 days of snowfall in January and 0 days of snowfall in June and July
Amount of wind gust averages as 95 knots in Janurary and 55 knots in June
are the coldest months and July and August are the warmest. Ground frost occurs on an average of 9 months per year
Amount of sunshine is highest in May with around 13 hours of sunshine each day of the 31 day month, and the lowest in December with around 9 hours a day during the 31 day month
SOUTH WEST PENINSULA
www.metoffice.gov.uk
Average Rainfall hits 122.2mm in the winter months, and an average of 50.9mm in the summer months
Average Temperature peaks between 1° and 8° in the winter months and averages between 11° and 22° in the summer months. January and February
are the coldest months and July and August are the warmest. Ground frost occurs on around 35-100 months per year
The average 30yr old man will burn 714cal per hour while mountain biking. The average 30yr old woman burns 408cal. If they are cycling all day, (about 8 hours) the man will burn 5,712cal and the woman will burn 3,264cal. These calories will need replacing throughout the day if they are to maintain their optimum performance.
WHEN SHOULD THEY EAT?
According to Aimee Layton and other exercise physiologists, riders should be eating before, during and after going on a ride.
1
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5
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RULES OF THE TRAIL
WHAT SHOULD THEY EAT?
General rules for mountain bike trails: (www.imba.com)
RIDE ON OPEN TRAILS ONLY
Respect trail and road closures - ask if uncertain; avoid trespassing on private land; obtain permits or other authorization as may be required.
LEAVE NO TRACE
Be sensitive to the dirt beneath you. Recognise different types of soils and trail construction. Wet and muddy trails are more vulnerable to damage. When the trailbed is soft, consider other riding options. This also means staying on existing trails and not creating new ones.
CONTROL YOUR BICYCLE
Inattention for even a second can cause problems. Obey all bicycle speed regulations and recommendations.
ALWAYS YIELD TRAIL
Let your fellow trail users know you're coming. A friendly greeting or bell is considerate and works well; don't startle others. Show your respect when passing by slowing to a walking pace or even stopping. Anticipate other trail users around corners or in blind spots.
NEVER SCARE ANIMALS
All animals are startled by an unannounced approach, a sudden movement, or a loud noise. This can be dangerous for you, others, and the animals. Give animals extra room and time to adjust to you. When passing horses use special care and follow directions from the horseback riders.
PLAN AHEAD
Know your equipment, your ability, and the area in which you are riding and prepare accordingly. Be self-sufficient at all times, keep your equipment in good repair, and carry necessary supplies for changes in weather or other conditions. A well-executed trip is a satisfaction to you and not a burden to others. Always wear a helmet and appropriate safety gear.
Before a long ride, bikers should eat a high carbohydrate meal, for example, pasta or a bagel. The meal should not have a large amount of protein in it; this however could lead to dehydration or muscle cramping, as protein requires a lot of water in order to digest easily.

During a ride, it is important to eat high carbohydrate, easily digestible food, as well as make sure to keep hydrated. Energy gels are good for calories and gaining a lot of energy very quickly, however solid food is better.

After riding bikers should consume a few hundred calories of food with a 4:1 carbohydrate to protein ratio, for example smoothies.
Websites such as Mountain Weather Information Service www.mwis.com update mountain climates daily. This gives riders an opportunity to assess the gear and eqiputment they may need for the ride, as well as gives an early warning of the conditions of terrain in the area.
WEATHER IN THE MOUNTAINS
THE LAKE DISTRICT
Average 3.9° in January and 15.4° in July
Average 13 days of precipitation each month from October to January, and only 10 days of precipitation each month from April to July.
SNOWDON (WALES)
Average 5.5° in February and 15.7° in August
Average 15 days of precipitation in November, and only 8 days of precicipation in July.
PEAK DISTRICT
Average 4.2° in January and 16.3° in July
Average 13 days of precipitation in each month from October to January, and only 10 days of precicipation in April, May and July.
WEST HIGHLANDS (BEN NEVIS)
Average 3.9° in January and 14.3° in July
Average 21 days of precipitation in January, and only 13 days of precicipation in May.
NORTHERN HIGHLANDS
Average 3.1° in January and 14.8° in July
Average 18 days of precipitation in January, and only 10 days of precicipation in July.
The Mountain House: Mountain Oven is a huge solution to flameless cooking. It uses an exothermic reaction between a heating pad and salt water to heat a food pouch somewhat similar to a microwave rice pouches. The cooking process only takes about 20mins.
Mountainous ecosystems are particularly sensitive to climate change. The rising of temperature, the melting of glaciers and the reduction of winter snowfall during spring, is seen as dramatic as they play a significant role in the future of our ecosystem. Low land areas are also at a great risk from climate change on mountainous areas, leading to factors such as reduced water in rivers and streams. As global temperatures continue to rise, climate change has a huge impact on areas in which snow melt dominates the local hydrology, playing an important role in controlling the aridity of local soil levels. The upstream affects of mountainous climate change begin to accumulate downstream, resulting in changes in seasonal hydrology across large agricultural areas. It is essential that we are able to adapt our water consumption in a way which is sustainable according to the changing availability of water in our local environment. Imbalances and changes in the ecosystem can have a dramatic effect on a local habitat, even eradicating local mountain species.
CLIMATE CHANGE ON MOUNTAINOUS AREAS
COOKING IN BAD CONDITIONS
Cooking outdoors in bad weather conditions can easily act as a hindrance
Naked flames whilst raining will extinguish fire
If very windy, may not be able to stabalise product to cook properly
If raining, things that are open will fill with water
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS ON THE USE OF BIKE TRAILS
Common environmental impacts associated with recreational use of trails include:
• Vegetation loss and compositional changes
• Soil compaction
• Erosion
• Muddiness
• Degraded water quality
• Disruption of wildlife

IMPACTS ON VEGETATION
On formal trails, most vegetation is typically removed by construction, maintenance, and visitor use. This impact is necessary and "unavoidable" in order to provide a clear route for trail users. One goal of trail construction and maintenance is to provide a trail only wide enough to accommodate the intended use. Wider trails expose substantially greater amounts of soil to erosion by wind or water. Trampling associated with "avoidable" off-trail traffic can quickly break down vegetation cover and create a visible route that attracts additional use.
Trail managers can either avoid or minimize impacts to vegetation through careful trail design, construction, maintenance, and management of visitor use by:
• Designing trails that provide the experience reduce desire to venture off-trail
• Locate trails away from rare plants and animals
• Keep trails narrow to minimize vegetation and soil impacts
• Use construction techniques that save and redistribute topsoil and excavated plants
• Educate visitors to be aware of their ability to carry non-native plant seeds on their bikes or clothing

IMPACTS ON SOILS
As with vegetation loss, much soil disturbance occurs in the initial construction and use of the trail.
In contrast, post-construction soil displacement, erosion, and muddiness represent core forms of avoidable trail impact that require sustained management attention to avoid long-lasting resource degradation. Soil erosion exposes rocks and plant roots, creating a rutted and uneven tread surface. Erosion can also be self-perpetuating when treads erode below the surrounding soil level, hindering efforts to divert water from the trail and causing accelerated erosion and muddiness.
Research has shown that visitors notice obvious forms of trail impact, such as excessive muddiness and eroded ruts and tree roots, and that such impacts can degrade the quality of visitor experiences (Roggenbuck and others., 1993; Vaske and others., 1993). Such conditions also increase the difficulty of travel and may threaten visitor safety.



There are a number of tactics for avoiding the worst soil-related impacts to trails:
• Discourage or prohibit off-trail travel
• Design trails with sustainable grades and avoid fall-line alignments
• When possible, build trails in dry, cohesive soils that easily compact and contain a larger percentage of coarse material or rocks
• Minimize tread muddiness by avoiding flat terrain, wet soils, and drainage-bottom locations.
• In flatter areas, elevate and crown treads to prevent muddiness, or add a gravel/soil mixture in low spots.

The Four Common Forms of Soil Degradation on Trails:
• Compaction
• Muddiness
• Displacement
• Erosion
Goeft and Alder (2001) evaluated the resource impacts of mountain biking on a recreational trail and racing track in Australia over a 12-month period. A variety of trail condition indicators were assessed on new and older trail segments with uphill, downhill, and flat trail sections. Results found that trail slope, age, and time were significant erosion factors, and that downhill slopes and curves were the most susceptible to erosion. New trails experienced greater amounts of soil compaction but all trails exhibited both compaction and loosening of soils over time. The width of the recreational trail varied over time, with no consistent trend, while the width of the racing trail grew following events but exhibited net recovery over time. Impacts were confined to the trail tread, with minimal disturbance of trailside vegetation.
GOEFT AND ALDER EXPERIMENT
Wohrstein (1998) evaluated the impacts from a World Championship mountain biking race with 870 participants and 80,000 spectators. Erosion was found only on intensively used racing trails in steep terrain where alignments allowed higher water runoff. The mountain biking routes exhibited higher levels of compaction but to a shallower depth in comparison to the spectator areas, where compaction was lower but deeper.
WOHRSTEIN EXPERIMENT
Trail-related impacts to water resources can include the introduction of soils, nutrients, and pathogenic organisms, and alter the patterns of surface water drainage. However, in practice, these impacts are avoidable and properly designed and maintained trails should not degrade water quality.
Poorly sited and/or maintained trails can be eroded by water, with tread sediments carried off by runoff. Since many recreational activities, such as fishing, swimming, boating, and viewing scenery (draw visitors and trails to the vicinity of water resources, it is often necessary to route trails to water resources or visitors will simply create their own informal trails.
Poorly designed trails can also alter hydrologic functions - for instance, trails can intercept and divert water from seeps or springs, which serve important ecological functions.

IMPACTS TO WATER
www.imba.org.uk
Trails and trail uses can also affect wildlife. Trails may degrade or fragment wildlife habitat, and can also alter the activities of nearby animals, causing avoidance behaviour in some and food-related attraction behaviour in others. Even very localized disturbance can harm rare or endangered species.

The impacts of mountain biking on wildlife are similar to those of hikers and other non-motorised trail users.

IMPACTS ON WILDLIFE
Taylor and Knight (2003) investigated the interactions of wildlife and trail users (hikers and mountain bikers) at Antelope Island State Park in Utah. A hidden observer using an optical rangefinder recorded bison, mule deer, and pronghorn antelope response to an assistant who hiked or biked a section of trail. The observer then measured wildlife reactions, including alert distance, flight response, flight distance, distance fled, and distance from trail. Observations revealed that 70 percent of animals located within 330 feet (100 m) of a trail were likely to flee when a trail user passed, and that wildlife exhibited statistically similar responses to mountain biking and hiking. Wildlife reacted more strongly to off-trail recreationists, suggesting that visitors should stay on trails to reduce wildlife disturbance. While Taylor and Knight found no biological justification for managing mountain biking any differently than hiking, they note that bikers cover more ground in a given time period than hikers and thus can potentially disturb more wildlife per unit time.
TALOR AND KNIGHT EXPERIMENT
EXISTING LAND ROVER VEHICLES (as shown on landrover.co.uk)
DISCOVERY
RANGE ROVER
DEFENDER
"A bold design"
Safe
Technological
Ease
• 3 classic lines of the lower accent graphic, roofline and continuous waistline
• Tapered and curved silhouette
• Enhanced streamlined form due to gloss black pillars holding the floating roof
• Interior gives sense of calm, indulgent and luxurious comfort
• Controls within easy reach
• Clean surfaces with soft supple leathers and wood veneers
• Contemporary
• New hybrid models
• High performing using the latest powertrain
technology

Modern
Serenity
Clean
"Modern interpretation of iconic design"
"Epitome of toughness, ruggedness, strength and capability"
Capability
Iconic
Tough
• Conceived in 1947 as a “multipurpose vehicle for the farmer, the countryman and general industrial use”
• All-terrain
• Most recognisable 4 wheel drive
• A legend on 7 continents for challenging expeditions and humanitarian support
• Used by emergency services around the world
• Versatile interior space
• Can meet any challenge you give
• 9 styles available including wagon, pick up
and hard top

• Modern, relevant, compelling vehicle
• Purposeful stance uniquely designed for today
• Vehicle that connects on an emotional level
• Bold horizontal and vertical lines, with clean surfaces to promote a highly versatile package
• Clearly communicates Discovery DNA
• Attention to detail
• Designed and engineered to meet any challenge
• Accommodates passengers and kit with ease


"The extraordinary everyday"
Versatility
Technology
Ability
• Advanced technology
• Feel more connected to the road and deliver a response drive
• Enjoy getting there
• Generous configurable interior
• Settings for optimal drive-ability
• Ease over rough terrain
• Clean finish accentuates contemporary style
• Greater visibility to reduce stress and fatigue
• Safety first - maintain grip and stability
• Sunroof all over to keep cabin light and airy

• Builds on range rovers sport capabilities and creates a performance SUV
• Confident and composed – leaves you in control
• Outstanding hybrid performance
• Impressive efficiencies – dynamic and responsive
• Innovative engineering
• Lightweight aluminum body
• Fastest/most agile
• Improved grip, steering and reduced under steer
• Perfectly balanced – muscular and contemporary presence
• Flowing lines, distinctive silhouette and dramatic presence
• Contemporary interior to reflect its sporting character
• Obsessive detail shape comfortable yet purposeful space


"It's dramatic. It's powerful."
Innovative
Confident
Present
• Rising beltline, muscular shoulders and tapered roof
• Capable and athletic appearance
• Highly practical
• Downward lighting puddle lamps project graphic on the ground
• Quality of materials emphasised by clean treatment of interior surfaces
• Panoramic roof to flood cabin with light
• Dynamic driving experience


"A bold evolution"
EVOQUE
RANGE ROVER SPORT
DISCOVERY SPORT
LAND ROVER BIKES
As well as creating children, city and folding bikes, Land Rover has developed a range of mountain bikes. Priced between £279.99-£599.99, these state of the art bikes do not seem to represent the Land Rover design intent.
The Sport frame is made using 7005 aluminium for extra strength and lightness. It has 21 speed Shimano gears with wide ratios suitable for off road and on road use. A really comfortable deep padded Land Rover Saddle and components make for a winning combination.
Distinctive
Award-winning
Comfort
The Experience Sport
Matarari
This women's mountain bike uses both strength and security combined with the convenience of a traditional low step frame. A wide range of 21 gears for all terrains and comfort features like suspension forks.
The Experience Pro
Powerful mechanical disc brakes on the front and the rear of the Pro ensure authority and confidence when controlling the bike in more difficult conditions. Upgraded shimano gears enhance the purposeful nature of this bikes off road specification.
2x2 head designer Tim Higgins says: “Riders will find them fast and responsive on the trails, and they offer a great introduction to good quality mountain bike riding.”
"The frame may not be cutting edge, but the componentry is mostly bang up to the minute."


www.bikeradar.com
The Range Rover Evoque
The Discovery Sport
Jetboil creates canister stoves, suitable for outdoor cooking when camping or doing similar activities. It’s redesigned cooking cup, the perfect combination of size, sturdy metal handles, and optimized height, provides users with an easy-to-eat experience. The boil time is up to 2 minutes and 15 seconds per 16 oz (average over the life of a Jetpower can)
All canister stoves suffer a performance drop in cold weather. The colder the fuel, the lower the vapour pressure, and the lower the burner output. The result can be noticeably longer boil times and difficulty lighting the burner. Mountaineers use Jetboil stoves up to 8,000 m (26,000 ft.) on Mt. Everest and love them.
Priced between £50-£100
Trangia produce family stoves with capacious pans, a wider frypan and a larger kettle. With the supports in the raised position, the stove can be used with large billies from the rest of the Trangia range. All the stove systems in the 25 series have two saucepans (1.75 and 1.5 litres), a 22 cm frying pan, windshields (upper and lower), a burner, a pan grip and a strap.
Aluminium is a durable and lightweight material that conducts heat uniformly and quickly, so food does not burn in the centre of the pan. The aluminium stove has a hard surface that protects against scratches and abrasion. Trangia’s basic models are made totally of aluminium, a material that has consistently good characteristics. For people who want trouble-free cooking with a stove that lasts for many years. In winter conditions, the pre-heater appliance is used to light the stove and saves time in bringing water to the boil.
Priced from £20-£80

JetBoil
Trangia
'ABOVE AND BEYOND'
Luxury
ADVENTUROUS
versitle
SPORT
Spacious
RUGGED
'BRITISHNESS'
Dependable
VICTORIA BECKHAM
QUALITY
JAMES BOND
exploration
FUN
contemporary
SAFE
Technological
Streamlined
TOUGH
CONTEMPORY
Interview with George, aged 42 from Warwickshire
Carries items in backpacks, there is always water, repair and first aid kit, money and phone within the group
Likes to snack roughly 4 times a trip, stops for no more than 20 minutes as doesn't want muscles to cool down. Eats high energy foods e.g bananas
He would prefer to eat hot food but only if it is quick and easy to heat up.
Environment induced restraints include wearing gloves when eating and everything is very muddy.
Money savvy. Will spend large amounts but only if he has researched it, feels it will get used a lot, is good quality.
Tom is a 23yr old student at Loughborough University. He is a very active biker who rides at least 2 times a week and has been doing so for the last 10yrs. He is very passionate about riding and uses it to socialise. He travels for rides, often driving although he would rather not have to.
He hates having things attached to his bike so he wouldn't be interested in something that did.
He always carried his backpack with him and water.
He eats high carb food for energy. Often snacking on high sugar foods for quick release energy.
He is very interested in a product that will allow him to eat hot food to eat on location.
Isn't that bothered by brands. "...it's about making sure that it's the right product for my bike and personality."
Doesn't take the sport too seriously, driven by the social and fun side as a relaxation tool
Likes to stay local as he knows the routes and its quick and efficient for busy life schedule. Enjoys pushing his fitness levels occasionally.
Rides with a group - references back to above points, enjoys riding for social aspect and ease.
Mountain biking can be motivated by many factors excluding fitness i.e. social aspects, adrenaline rush, relaxation tool

Can be done in an array of environments, doesn’t necessarily have to be in ‘mountains’. Cross Country Mountain biking can be done within local areas

Riding in groups seems to be preferable, more sociable and safer
Preferable to snack on small portions of high energy foods frequently to maintain stamina

Hot food is desirable but cooking times are not, wants something that is quick and easy to heat up

Must take into account that the environment and the rider will be very muddy during winter. Often cold temperatures to riders are likely to wear gloves making tactile moves more difficult


George's Mountain Bike is a Norco Charger 9.0 and was a new design for 2016
The equipment that mountain bikers use depend on the type of riding that they do. Downhill riders will use: Full face helmet, glasses/goggles, lightweight jursey, body armour/spine protection, shin and knee pads, gloves, backpack, camelpack/bottle, puncture repair kit...etc.. Cross country riders will carry less equipment and wear less protective gear, as weight is a bigger issue for them.
Shock Absorption Suspension
A mountain bikes suspension is a very essential and important part of the bike. Suspension forks can vary massively depending on the type of travel, their shock damping ability, stiffness and weight as well as price points.

Travel

is the maximum vertical distance that the fork can compress to absorb an impact. There are suspension forks designed for every type of bike; for example a cross country bike offers 80 – 120mm, this value increases to about 210mm. Generally speaking, the further the fork can move, the smoother that it can absorb any impacts. However the disadvantage to this is that the longer leg forks have to be heavier to cope with the extra leverage so it becomes a balance between shock absorption and weight.

Strength and Weight -
It’s important for the rider to consider how much strength they need from a fork as this is proportional to weight therefore the rider does not want to be carrying around excess weight that would not get used. For cross country riders and climbers, a light and tight fork works best.



FORK ANATOMY:

Air springs
are essentially pressurized air chambers. They are light and easy to adjust to differing rider height preferences by changing the pressure in the chamber.
Metal coil springs
are less adjustable and significantly heavier. Their main advantage over an air spring is that they feel super smooth, particularly over small bumps, and are cheaper.
Fork movement is controlled by
damping
. Oil is pushed through a series of valves, by altering the size of these valves and the speed at which the oil is flowing from one side to the other it is possible to control the impact. Compression damping controls the impact strike whereas rebound damping controls the post impact speed of the fork as it returns smoothly to its natural ride height.

Contact Patch
- The general debate with the size of the tyre is traction vs. turning. If a tyre has a smaller footprint, it still has the same amount of force applied to it. As Wyatt states “This means, in soft soil, the small tyre will penetrate more. And that means it creates more drag/rolling resistance and higher wear rates.” However tyres with smaller footprints tend to be lighter which is an important factor if you are racing.

Air pressure
- Tubeless tyres run a lower pressure than a tube and tyre set up which improves the tyres grip. The aim for a rider is to find the lowest tyre pressure that they can run without flatting or losing tyre stability for cornering.






Tube and tyre set up
Photos of Tom on his mountain biking trips
Since the London 2012 Olympics a lot of people have taken up sports that they previously had never done. This means more product sales in sporting. Therefore, there is a larger market than before for products based around sporting activities and sport equipment.
Since YouTube has become the biggest form of video sharing online, many biking videos have emerged that are widely viewed, ranging from topics such as hints and tips for riding, how to create your own trail and updates from famous cyclists. When these are presented by well-known, popular people, a number of watchers can be influenced to take up the sport.
The association of the Land Rover Brand to James Bond socially makes people think if they buy a Land Rover Branded product they have an adventure and be as 'cool' as James Bond.
The Atherton Family are proof that even though biking can be an extreme sport it can also be used as more of a social and bonding tool, rather than solely a competitive sport.
Photos of Will mountain biking
Used to be a big competitor but now does it for personal fun and thrill. Doesn't want it to become a chore, but wants to enjoy riding in his own time, with his friends.
Having an accident has not stopped him from still enjoying the sport.
Mainly likes to buy tools and accessories that help him to build his own trails
Using branded items is a big deal for Will. As shown, there are multiple brands that he goes to for different items, for example Oakley for sunglasses and 100% for goggles.
In the US, there is a clear growth in Internet shopping, and this is most likely the case in most countries. This, in conjunction with the trend of Staycations (holidays in which people stay within their own county or country) as stated earlier. This means consumers are more likely to buy products for 'active holidays', especially if they are easy to access and cheap to ship. According to the telegraph the number of foreign trips Britons take is 16% lower than it was before the recession. Data from Visit England, the country’s national tourist board, shows how holidays in England jumped by 12% between 2008 and 2013.
Will is mainly motivated to mountain bike by building his own trails in a local quarry or around his house. Not only does he follow trails, but he also creates his own area to try stunts and jumps, as a free ride mountain biker.

The weather has a big influence on when he gos out to ride. He mainly rides in summer due to the weather being a lot easier and safe to ride in, however spends a large sum of winter time building his own trakcks.

Will always rides with friends, and enjoys mainly eating hot food, especially having BBQ's in the summer. Other food such as pasta are also a big interest a they contain a lot of carbohydrate which allowws energy to burn off slowly. He doesn't mind taking a longer break to eat nicer, hotter food.

Lots of equipment is taken, including camera gear and tools to build trails. Although he doesn;t wear gloves, he does attach some things to his bike too.

Mountain biking is more of a socialable, relaxing activity as he stopped competing in order to enjoy the sport in his own time, with his friends. Branded items are important to Will, although he says "strength and quality of equipment is more important".
http://www.sacredrides.com/blog/youre-awesome
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Collective_(mountain_biking)
PROTECTIVE GEAR:
1800's
1900's-1960's
1970's-1980's
1990's-2000's
Here are some diagrams which display the components to a typical Mountain Bike. The one the left is a hardtail (no rear suspension), where as the bike on the right has full suspension (both front and rear). Hardtails are more suitable for cross country as they are easier to cycle up hill with, whereas full suspension bikes are better for downhill as the suspension will absorb more of the shocks going down.
One of the first examples of bicycles modified specifically for off-road use is the expedition of Buffalo Soldiers from Missoula, Montana to Yellowstone in August 1896. (Cross Country Style Mountain Biking)
Bicycles were ridden off-road by road racing cyclists who used cyclo-cross as a means of keeping fit during the winter.

The 'Rough Stuff Fellowship' was established in 1955 by off-road cyclists in the United Kingdom.

In England in 1968, Geoff Apps, a motorbike trials rider, began experimenting with off-road bicycle designs. By 1979 he had developed a custom built lightweight bicycle which was uniquely suited to the wet and muddy off-road conditions found in the south-east of England.
PUNCTURE REPAIR KIT:

A standard puncture repair kit will contain; a tyre lever to release the tyre from the wheels' rim, a crayon to mark the location of the puncture, a grater and chalk to dry the area so that the patches will stick, rubber patches and adhesive glue.
Most riders will carry a puncture repair kit with them at all times so that they never end up stranded somewhere with a flat tyre.
It was not until the late 1970s and early 1980s that road bicycle companies started to manufacture mountain bicycles using high-tech lightweight materials.

Joe Breeze is normally credited with introducing the first purpose-built mountain bike in 1978.

At the time, the bicycle industry was not impressed with the mountain bike, which many regarded as a short-term fad. In particular, large manufacturers such as Schwinn and Fuji failed to see the significance of an all-terrain bicycle and the coming boom in 'adventure sports'.
Throughout the 1990s and first decade of the 21st century, mountain biking moved from a little-known sport to a mainstream activity. Mountain bikes and mountain bike gear, that was once only available at specialty shops or via mail order, once it became available at standard bike stores. By the mid-first decade of the 21st century, even some department stores began selling inexpensive mountain bikes.
Metals
Polymers
Material selection is important due to the function the product will undertake and the environment it is in. Therefore, our material choices need to have flexibility, shock absorbance and be able to withstand high temperatures. On top of this, the materials used shouldn't be too dense as the user has to hold or carry the product for a considerable length of time while exercising. Therefore, the materials idealy should have a young's modulus below 100GPa and a densisty below 3000kg/m3. However, these critiera may have to be compromised to meet other constraints such as melting points.
BIKE PUMP:
Similar to the puncture repair kit, riders tend to carry bicycle pumps with them at all times, in case they end up with a flat tyre. Cycling on a flat tyre is really bad for your bike, as it can cause warping of the wheels and lead to accidents; therefore it is important to ensure the tyre pressure is correct.
Bike pumps that can attach to the bikes frame can be brought. They could however end up extremely muddy and get quite 'banged up' as its would be exposed to bad environments, rather than carrying it in a bag.
BACKPACKS:
Most riders will carry backpack to hold useful equipment. They tend to be smaller bags; sometimes bags with intergrated camelpacks in them, so that a water bottle doesn't need to be carried. Bags tend to be of a smaller size, so that body armour and helmets worn by bikers don't accidentally attach to the outside of the bag. Riders will normally carry food, water, a puncture repair kit, first aid supplies, a pump and personal items taken out of choice.
'I’m outside. I’m getting exercise. I’m experiencing the very definition of fun.' Jeff Bronikowski on 9/14/2013, Daily Burn
'I ride because its therapeutic.'
'I ride to get high on adrenaline.'
'I ride because its the closest I can get to the feeling of flying without ever leaving the ground.'
'I ride because it brings out the little boy in me.'
'I ride to remind myself to focus on the here and now.'
'I ride because all the pain goes away.'
'I ride because it makes me sane.'
'I ride because I can, for a lot of my life I couldn't.'
According to Julie Hughey (who writes for www.singletrackworld.com), the 5 reasons to Mountain Bike are:
It always presents you with a challenge
It takes you to amazingly beautiful places
There's beer (its very social)
Its an escape
It keeps you fit
He rides becuase its good fun and a good group activity. It also gives hime something to do.
He either rides in local woods, at a trail centre or around local cross country routes.
He would never ride on his own.
He rides about twice a week when he can.
He drives to location to ride but he would rather live in an area with more trails so he didnt have to.
He mainly rides in the summer and the spring. dislikes riding in the rain.
Tend to carry water and food with him. Pasta, flapjack, muffins, doughnuts etc.
High carb foods
Has electrical taped things he needs to carry to his bike frame.
Tends to have a snack mid morning and then stop for lunch
Stops for 30-45mins
Would want to eat hot high carb food
He would like to eat hot food on location but not have to cook it there.
Doesnt tend to get too muddy when riding.
Has crashed a few times and has caused a fair amount of damage to the frame.
Sends quite a large amount of money on mountain biking
Likes brands such as Dakine and Oakley
STORYBOARD
FOOD SAFETY TEMPERATURES
CATEGORY
FOOD
TEMP. (F)
REST TIME
CATEGORY
FOOD
TEMP. (F)
REST TIME
CATEGORY
FOOD
TEMP. (F)
REST TIME
Ground Meat & Meat Mixtures
Beef, Pork, Veal, Lamb
Turkey, Chicken
160
165
145
165
165
Fresh Beef, Veal & Lamb
Steaks, roasts, chops
3 minutes
Poultry
Chicken & Turkey, whole
Poultry breasts, roasts
Poultry thighs, legs, wings
Duck & Goose
165
165
Pork and Ham
Fresh Pork
Fresh ham (raw)
Pre-cooked ham to reheat
145
145
140
3 minutes
3 minutes
Eggs
Egg dishes
Egg & egg dishes
Cook until yolk and white are firm
160
Leftovers and Casseroles
Leftovers
Casseroles
165
165
Seafood
Fin Fish
Shrimp, Lobster & Crab
Clams, Oysters & Muscles
Scallops
145 or cook until flesh is opaque and separates easily with a fork
Cook until flesh is pearly and opaque
Cook until shells open during cooking
Cook until flesh is milky white or opaque and firm
Why the rest time is important:
After you remove meat from a grill, oven, or other heat source, allow it to rest for the specified amount of time. During the rest time, its temperature remains constant or continues to rise, which destroys harmful germs.

1. Plan ahead. Don’t over cater as the greater the quantity of food you prepare the harder it is to keep it hot or cool enough. If you are catering for a lot of people prepare food as closely as you can to the time you will serve it.

2. Keep your fridge at or below 5°C. Use a fridge thermometer to check that the fridge temperature stays around 4 to 5°C. Also make sure you have enough room in the fridge because if the food is packed tightly the cold air cannot circulate.

3. Check the storage instructions. Read the label on packaged food to see if it needs to be stored in the fridge or freezer, many unrefrigerated items may need to be refrigerated once opened.

4. Keep hot food at or over 60°C. Hot food needs to be kept and served at 60°C or hotter. If you are keeping it warm for someone put it in the oven at 60°C (or at 100°C if that is as low as your oven will go).

5. Divide food up to cool. Freshly cooked food, not for immediate consumption, should have the temperature reduced as quickly as possible. Divide into containers in small portions and put it into the fridge or freezer as soon as it stops steaming.

6. Keep food on the move cool. If you are transporting perishable food around such as: refrigerated or frozen shopping, your (or your child’s) lunch or goodies for a BBQ or a picnic always use a cooler bag and add a frozen block or drink to keep things cool.

7. If in doubt throw it out. If perishable food has been in the temperature danger zone for 2 to 4 hours consume it immediately. After 4 hours throw it out.

http://www.foodsafety.asn.au/
7 simple tips to keep food out of the Temperature Danger Zone
What it is: Olive oil comes from pressing whole olives. While it's used all over the world, it is the primary cooking oil used in the Mediterranean. It is high in monounsaturated fatty acids.

Smoke point: Smoke points vary depending on the type of olive oil: Extra Virgin is 320°F, Virgin is 420°F, Pomace is 460°F, Extra Light is 468°F

What it's good for: Extra virgin olive oil has the richest flavor because it is made without any heat or chemicals, which makes it good for salad dressings and drizzling. Refined olive oil is good for sautéing.
What it is: Canola oil is made from the seeds of the canola plant. It is low in saturated fat, with only seven percent saturated fat -- compared to sunflower oil, which has 12 percent, and olive oil, which 15 percent saturated fat. It has a neutral flavor, high smoke point and is also relatively inexpensive.

Smoke point: 400°F

What it's good for: All-purpose, good for cooking and dressings
What it is: Vegetable oil refers to any plant-based oil, which may include any or a combination of the following: soybean, sunflower or safflower oil. Most vegetable oils have a high smoke point and neutral flavor, which make them great for baking.

Smoke point: Depends on the type (See Canola, Soybean, Sunflower, Safflower...)

What it's good for: All-purpose, good for cooking and dressings
What it is: Sunflower oil's high smoke point and light flavor make it a favorite for frying, but it is also a good oil for baking. It is made from pressed sunflower seeds, is high in vitamin E and low in saturated fat.

Smoke point: 450°F

What it's good for: Frying, margarine, salad dressings, baking
huffingtonpost.com
BOILING POINTS
OLIVE OIL
CANOLA OIL
VEGETABLE OIL
SUNFLOWER OIL
WATER
The boiling point of watr is 100°C. The boiling point of a liquid is the state of where it turns into a gas. This is also the case when boiling food in water. Other liquids, such as soup, have a very similar boiling point to water, however varies each time.
STEAMING
BOILING
GRILLING
FRYING
The History Of Mountain Biking
Modern Day Mountain Biking
While Mountain Biking, the rider will need to take in more calories in order to provide enough energy to continue with the activity.

The ideal times to eat whilst exercising is either before or after the activity. This is because if you stop during exercise there is a risk of lactic acid building up in your arms and legs which causes stiffness and will cause discomfort while continuing the ride.

Before exercise, the best food to eat is easy-to digest carbs. These are foods like bread, potatoes or bananas. This food type would not benefit a food cooking device, however could be incorporated into the product to make it a total experience product.

However, after exercise, the most beneficial foods to eat are protein based as it help to grow and recover the muscles. These foods are Chicken, Peppers, Nuts, Eggs, Salmon (most sea food) and Fruit (More in depth information in HOW?) These types of food would benefit from a portable cooking device, and would promote a healthier biking experience amongst non-professional cyclists.

All of this being said, we will not know when cyclists actually tend to stop and eat during a day cycling/riding because this may differ from the most beneficial to the most convenient.
Rubber
Currently in mountain biking, people use a lot of equipment which all focus around the same objective; safety. These products include:

-Gloves - which are full hand and have padded knuckles.
-Glasses - perspecs glasses which protect the rider from track debris.
-Shoes- gripped soles similar to hiking boots to allow the rider extra grip to bike pedals, as well as walk safely if needs be.
-Helmets - these could be "Half Shell" or "Full Face", to prevent damage to the head if the rider has a collision.
-First aid Kits
-Body Armour and Pads
By looking at the current products used in the sport and the reasons they have been designed, shows us that this can be a dangerous sport and sometimes things can go wrong. This taken into account, shows us that the product we make has to be strong, whilst also having an ability to keep its form under sudden impact without breaking or deforming; therefore weak or brittle materials such as wood, foam and ceramics would not work well.
Grilling uses a heat source located beneath the cooking surface. Grills may be electric or gas, or they can burn wood or charcoal, which will add a smoky flavour to the food. Specific woods such as mesquite, hickory or vine clippings can be used to create special flavours.
Pan frying is a dry-heat cooking method in which heat is transferred by conduction from the pan to the food, using a moderate amount of fat. Heat is also transferred to the food from the hot fat by convection
Boiling is a moist-heat-cooking method that uses the process of convection to transfer heat from a liquid to a food. Boiling uses large amounts of rapidly bubbling liquid to cook foods. The turbulent waters and the relatively high temperatures cook foods more quickly than do poaching or simmering. Few foods. however, are cooked by true boiling.
Steaming is a moist-heat cooking method that uses the process of convection to transfer heat from the steam to the food being cooked. The food to be steamed is placed in a basket or rack above a boiling liquid. The food should not touch the liquid; it should be positioned so that the steam can circulate around it.
On the Tragia outdoor cooking stove, the folowing table shows how long it takes to boil water on their different products:
BURNER: 0,5 L: 1,0 L:
Spirit 4,5 min 8 min
Gas burner 2,5 min 3,5 min
X2, gas - 4 min
X2, white gas - 4,5 min

Using gas to heat the water gives a siginficantly quicker cooking time. Carbohydrates such a pasta and potatoes are mainly cooked by boiling.
Generally, steaming food has a longer cooking time than boiling and frying, due to the lack of physical contact with a source of heat
Frying is the quickest way of cooking food, usually in oil. However, this does cause it to be a more unhealthy option.
Grilling uses little added fat. Flavor is added to the foods as it is exposed to smoke and char during the cooking process. Grilling will partly destroy heat-sensitive vitamins, although there is little loss of water-soluble vitamins.
HOW MUCH DO RIDERS CARRY WITH THEM?
COMPETITIONS
foodsafety.gov
British Company - All about their hertitage and being typically British
They have a lot of history in making cars that can go anywhere, go 'above and beyond'
They entered the luxury 4x4 car market in 1989
They build cars that last - at least people think that they do, so they buy into that feeling of saftey and security
Their ideology is to create versitle and adventurous vehicles
These days they create cars that are sporty and luxurious
Their marketing has involved people such as Victoria Beckham and James Bond. Both are the optimum of class for their gender and age, so give the users ideas that if they buy a Land Rover, they will be like them
Land Rovers apperance in the newest James Bond 'Spectre' showcased them as a brand that can do anything
There is a sense of sercurity and trust in the brand
CLASS
Interview with Tom, aged 23 from Loughborough
Interview with Nathan, aged 18 from Loughborough .
He is a semi-professional road cyclist for Tema Novo nordisk. He involved in the interview stage of this research so we can determine if the product branch out into other aspect of cycling and not just mountain biking
Nathan competes and trains an treats the sport as competative that has a social by-product. He rides for long amounts of time and stops for food when convient.
In order to get to locations he uses the most convinent mode of transport. Mostly he trains in his local area but will use transport during the Feburary - October sporting season. Normally his dad supplis the transport.
Only takes food that fits in pockets and doesn't weight much and doesn't wait between eating and continuing with the ride.
Cooking equipment could be useful in some cases for road cycling.
Nathan finds that during some weather he get very dirty, which we will have address.
Spends around £350-£400 on cycling
Crashing is still a possibility in road cycling and can cost a lot of money to correct. The product will need to be durable to make sure no damage is taken in collisions.
In the case of Nathan, road cycling is sport with social factors. This interview give us insight into other types of cycling and how a cooking product could be transferable across different disciplines.

Nathan gives the impression that road cycling does not require cycling in groups. However, Nathan will cycle in both, therefore for social groups a cooking product could cater for more than one cyclist.

The sport can become quite costly if equipment becomes damaged, the first things people will replace are the essentials.

Even though road cycling takes place on roads we must still take into account that this environment still causes the rider to become very muddy during winter. This could lead to the product looking dirty and unsanitary to cook in. Also, people may wear gloves in the winter which could reduce dexterity if they don't remove them unless the product is warm enough to remove the need of gloves.

Even though the main audience of the product is mountain bikers, there could be a cross-over market into road cycling.


EXISTING COOKING PRODUCTS
Rides to have a bit of fun and get a bit of an adrenaline rush.
Was with his family.
He hired bikes and protective equipment
Went as quite a big group
Did several runs in the day
Road as smaller sub groups of about 3.
Went riding for a week
Went cross country riding
Was riding about 100km a day
Had to train
Drove there because it was cheaper than flying
Went during the sumer
Took a backpack with him
Didnt attach anything to his bike
Weight didnt make any difference
Didnt really stop for food breaks, only stopped for short breaks
For cross country he ate what he was given
When in the Alps he stopped at reseraunts
Never left time after eating
Would take packed food with him
Wouldnt want to cook, would want to keep warm
Wore gloves
Has crashed alot
Likes brands such as Hugo Boss, Jaeger, GoPro, Redbull
Callum is a 19 year old student at Loughborough University. He has done both Cross Country and downhill mountain biking. He went downhill biking for a week with his family over the summer and 5 years ago cross country cycled across Vietnam and Cambodia.
Over the summer he was riding with his family for a week. He went riding because he finds it fun and was loking for an adrenaline rush. While they were out there they hired all the equipment that they needed, including bikes and protective gear.
They rode in a big group and its not something that he is interested in doing on his own.
When riding in the Alps his family drove as it was the cheaper option. If they could have they would have flown as they didnt have to take their bikes or equipment with them.
He would be interested in a product that would keep his food warm but he is not interested in a product that cooks food on location as this is too time consuming.

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
Fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP)
High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS)
PolyEther Ether-Ketone (PEEK)
Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (P.E.T)
Neoprene
Can be moulding die cast. Has a melting point 660.32 degrees which is ideal for cooking, this proven by the fact it is the most common material used in frying pan. A kevlar element could be added to make the product non stick and easy to clean. Aluminium has a densisty of 2700kg/m3 which is heavy, but within the constraints and would be used in small amounts in conjunction with a polymer which have lower youngs modulus to allow for stock absorbance. Aluminium has a youngs modulus of 70GPa
Aluminium
Did the olympics boost Cycling?

Halfords reported a 14.7% jump in bike sales in the first quarter after the 2012 olympic games. They equated this to the "Wiggo Effect" after Bradley Wiggins won gold at the games.
Halfords reported ladies’ bikes designed by Victoria Pendleton were among its best sellers, these were vintage bike and not spoting bike which indicates people were getting on bikes for non-competitive reasons.

However the government statistics show that overall bicycle use across the country had remained static from 2011-2012, bringing into question the size of the so called “Wiggo Effect” in getting more people cycling more often. But, in the last quarter of 2012 the government’s 'Ride to Work' scheme leapt into popularity after the Olympics, with a 30% increase of people using bikes to get to work. Statistics also show that most of those new to the scheme hardly cycled before. Mark Brown, Head of Ride2Work at Evans Cycles, said: “The big stat we had was of that from July to August we saw 150% increase in people joining from the same period in 2011.”

It would seem the more bikes being sold then more people should would be cycling. British Cycling (BC) at the time carried carried out research on 1000 people before and after the Olympics along with the London School of Economics and showed Britain’s Olympic success had motivated people to cycle more, whether competitively, commuting or leisure rides.

The Guardian also said the “Wiggo Effect” had an affect in cycling holidays during 2012, they also predicting cycling would continue to dominate the ‘active break/stay-cation’ sector in 2013. Andrew Straw of cycling holiday company Saddle Skedaddle agreed.
To gain more insights into how our product would be used, we created a storyboard to give a clearer idea of the context. It also allowed us to summarise our interview research and present it in a visual way.

Anything inside the marked area is a
useable material.
Foam's are too soft and would melt if used as the main body of the product. However, could be incorporated to provide shock-absorbance if it would re-turn to it original shape to make sure the form of the product remained.
Polymer will be an ideal material type to use for the main product body as it is strong enough to maintain its form while having a re-lativly high melting point compared to foam. Some polymers also have quite lw GPa's which will also mean it brings some shock-absorbance qualities.
Woods all have too low density and will dent and de-form under impact. Furthermore, woods expand and contract depending on temperature, therefore, all woods wouldn't be suitable materials for a cooking device.
As shown by the material constriant lines some metals could be used in the product, however, the only one that is cheap and easy to form and mould is Aluminium.
Rubbers would probably be quite useful as an outer shell for the product, more so than foams because of it's higher density, which means normally the materials are better at returning, especially when they have such a low GPa.
Glass Transition Temp (Tg)

- the temperature at which material start become stiff/brittle.

Melting Point
- the temperature at which a solid material turns to liquid

'The Mirror's' Top 10 UK Staycation destinations:

1. London

2. Cornwall

3. Edinburgh

4. Scottish Highlands

5. Lake District

6. Devon

7. North Wales

8. York

9. Blackpool

10. Brighton


1. You'll save money!

2. It's fun for the whole family.

3. It's way less stress than a vacation. - no passport controll or security, just get up and go.

4. You'll finally enjoy your surroundings. - there are loads of beautiful country to look at in England just like there is in Tenerife or Australia.

5. Discover new places in your area.

6. You'll support your local economy.

Looking at all these points Staycations are a time for family and friends to have an adventure on a small budget, as they may not want to spend a lot of money on cafe or resturant breaks; they are more likely to cook for themselves. Furthermore, the idea of having a staycation is to explore, camp and take in the beauty of the country side; travellers may prefer to eat outside rather than in cafe's. This is where a product like ours would definitly be a benefit for cyclists.
Types of Cycling in the olympics :
BMX
Cross-Country
Road Race
Time Trial
Keirin
Omnium
Sprint
Team Pursuit
Team Sprint

YouTube is the world's most popular online video site, with users watching 4 billion hours worth of video each month, and uploading 72 hours worth of video every minute.

Since its inception in 2005, YouTube has grown from a site devoted to amateur videos to one that distributes original content.

It played an instrumental role during the Arab Spring, and has also helped jump start the careers of Justin Bieber and Korean pop sensation Psy, but is still used to for amateur video's by vloggers like PointlessBlog and ThatcherJoe, and used by mountain bike channels like Gobal Mountain Bike Network and VAUDE.
Overall our interview sources are reliable and give a fair overview of our target user group. The range of riding ability of the interviewees varies; a few users train on a weekly basis whilst others ride more sporadically or as a holiday activity. This enables us to get an insight into how users perceive the activity and how their behaviour differs depending on the frequency with which they ride.

Our users also had different lead motivations for riding with some taking it on for a fitness and competitive aspect whilst others enjoyed the social and fun side to the sport. By having slightly different motivations, we are able to get an overview of how the intensity levels to the sport vary. However throughout all the interviews it was clear that they all rode for the adrenaline and enjoyment they gained through participation. There was also a recurring theme that riding on your own was much more boring and everyone liked to ride with a group of people to keep the sport sociable.

Although we did manage to get a varying age range, it was predominately focused on the younger generation with four of the interviewees aged between 18 to 23. Our fifth interviewee was aged 42 which enabled us to compare his answers with younger opinions, however a greater sample would have given us more insight and enabled us to spot any common trends that were proportional to age.

Furthermore all our users were male which did not enable us to get the perspective of a female in a predominately male dominated sport. Once again this would have allowed us to investigate any comparable differences or similarities within gender.

In conclusion our sample has given us some valuable insights, explored further in the primary research summary. Although there were some limitations to the user group, the riders have been able to give us personal stories and facts that enable us to analyse common trends as well as phenomena within mountain biking.

Riders wear protective equipment (dependent on type of mountain biking) such as body armour and helmets to protect their bodies from unnecessary force and weather or environment conditions

Riders tend to carry essential items such as a repair kit and bike pump in backpacks during the activity

Mountain bikes have large range of parts that require maintenance and vary depending on the specification of the bike

Material selection is important to ensure that the product would be suitable for the use and environment

A range of materials including polymers, metals and rubbers are suitable due to their density and thermal properties but would work best in a combination of materials

Current equipment is designed for protection therefore it is important to consider that any cooking products would have to be suitable to endure large impacts

Planning a route for the ride, either looking online or at ordinate servey map and checking the weather of the area to make sure its going to be a niceish day.
Loading up the car about 7am, making sure that everything that is needed is there, possibly removing the wheels from the bike if they do not fit properly into the boot.
Arriving at the trail about 8.30am, unpacking the car, checking to make sure that everything is perfect with the bikes.
Ride the trails for a couple of hours, or util they need a short rest.
Stop for a short rest (about 15mins), some water and a snack. Probably something high energy, for example flapjack.
Continue riding for a couple more hours.
Stop to have lunch for 45mins, eat some more high energy food, for example pasta. Then continue riding until they are satisfied with all the rding they have doen. Then head back to the end of the trail and back to the car
P.E.E.S.T SUMMARY
Pack up the car, making sure everything is packed away. Drive home and unpack car when they arrive home.
There are a range of heating sources that can be analysed concerning factors such as its ease to light, cooking times, weight, waste disposal etc. The most popular and suitable for a mountain bike cooking device prove to be a gas canister or a chemical heater (exothermic)

Insulating technology includes a range of materials with low thermal conductivity such as Polypropylene (EPP). This material combined with a vacuum proves to be the most effective insulator to keep food warm

Bike technology for example, shock absorbers and bike tyres, come in a range of shapes and sizes, and aspects of each technology can be altered slightly to the rider’s personal specifications to get the best ride possible
Photos of Callum mountain biking
POLITICAL
ECONOMICAL
ENVIRONMENTAL
SOCIAL
TECHNOLOGICAL
There are a range of government schemes to promote cycling as a method of transport such as the ‘Cyclescheme’ and ‘Boris Bikes’ which encourage fun and fitness

Legislation makes it compulsory to wear a helmet and certain protective equipment as well as keeping to cycle paths in order to protect the rider and other public way users
Due to the recession, there was an increase in people using bikes to travel in order to save on fuel and car costs

The costs of maintaining a bike and equipment, travelling to locations, costs to enter competitions etc. can be expensive and deter some users from entering the sport competitively however competitions do include money as winnings

Could be argued that there is a secondary cost of the sport on the NHS who have to deal with injuries and accidents incurred from biking
Weather varies throughout different seasons and locations but generally the temperature is below 5 degrees in winter and averaging 15 degrees in summer in the UK.

Climate change has played a huge factor in drastic changing weather conditions and water levels within the mountains

Weather conditions can prove to be a cooking hindrance such as a naked flame in wind and rain

Riding on trails has a major impact on the environment including vegetation loss, soil compaction, erosion, degraded water quality and disruption to wildlife
The London 2012 Olympics had a major impact on cycling, promoting it as a sport and encouraging a significant increase in the sale of bikes and number of riders following the games

Trend of Staycations (partly due to the economic recession) encouraged users to stay within the UK and have ‘active’ holidays promoting cycling as a fun recreational activity

The growth of YouTube over the last 10 years has enabled users to share and comment on biking videos creating more of a community for the sport as well as encouraging riding tips through popular mountain biking channels
Interview with callum, 19 from Warwick
WHY HAVE A STAYCATION?
according to mindbodygreen.com
Many ski resorts open in the summer period, to enable mountain bikers. This not only makes these resorts more well-known and popular, but keeps a steady income for these companies during the less popular time of year. Many resorts have adapted their lifts to help people get their bikes to the top of the mountain, in order to ride down. Places such as Les Gets, Morzine and Champery have a wide array of trails for cross country and down hill biking, which range from a beginner to a professional level. Champery hosted the Mountain Biking World Championships in 2011. More and more resorts are opening their doors over the summer to let people come and ride, as mountain biking becomes more popular in these areas when skiing is out of season.
Every summer Alpe d'huez hosts a huge race called 'Mega Avalanche', which is a downhill mountain biking marathon. The most famous round starts in the town of Alpe d'huez, and goes on for 30 kilometers.
As the cost of owning a car is rising, cycling to work is becoming more of a serious option for many people.

The UK government are trying to encourage people to cycle to work with several schemes. Known as the Bike2Work Scheme and the Cyclescheme, they are the first which allow employers to loan to employees with safety equipment. The Bike2Work Scheme encourages employees to have access to a range of safety equipment for free, for a period of time, which their employers can then afterwards claim the tax back from. The second scheme is the Cyclescheme, where anybody can choose a bike and hire it for a certain period of time which they pay for through their salary. Once it has been hired for a certain period of time, the bike can be bought for a fraction of the cost of its retail price.

The government ride to work schemes increased in sales by 30%, after the Olympics; this proved that more people are buying and riding bikes than ever! Halfords is responsible for 1 in 3 bikes sold in the UK. They reported a jump in sales of 14.1% from July-September after the London 2012 Olympics. Victoria Pendleton, who manufactures her designer bikes says that some of her best sellers show people are getting on their bikes for fun and not just for sport.
It has been reported that the increase in cycling is due to the success of British athletes, such as Bradley Wiggins, who won the Tour De France and won numerous gold medals at the London 2012 Olympics. The ‘Wiggo Effect’ is reportedly having a big impact on cycling holidays, by inspiring young people to even adults to get back on their bikes and enjoy the health benefits connected with cycling. Saddle Skedaddle, a cycling holiday company, has noticed a increase in the relaxed cycling holidays with lots of woman signing up.
5W'S AND 1 H
P.E.E.S.T
BRAND
CONTEXT
INTERVIEWS
Greater percentage of males to females, therefore there is a stereotypical ‘lad’ culture

From our secondary research, we found a common trend between using mountain biking as a therapeutic escape e.g. one mountain biker said “I ride because it makes me sane”

Our secondary research found that eating during exercise is not the most beneficial time, however from our interviews; we discovered that most bikers like to stop and snack during a ride.

In summer, it is better to ride earlier in the morning or later in the day to avoid extreme temperatures

An interesting phenomenon was highlighted by Tom, 23, who once strapped 8 beer cans to his bike to consume during his ride. This emphasises the social aspect of the sport.

A common trend was that riders would remove gloves to eat food.

We discovered that riders would only cook on location if cooking times were short (under 10 minutes)

We also found out that anything attached to the bike would have to be small enough not to interfere with the bikes’ function.

An unmet need is that riders can get frustrated during winter months as they can’t ride in certain trails parks due to a large amount of mud and water, leading to paths being cut up. This can cause problems with the trails in summer.


Even though Land Rover is now an Indian-owned company, they exploit the intangible quality of British heritage more than ever.

Advertisement of Land Rover within James Bond and Victoria Beckham’s special edition models rate the brand as an upper-class British icon.

A striking phenomena is that Land Rover have designed and produced a range of bikes, which are very unpopular and do not fit within the tangible brand identity or stylistic direction of their cars. This is not typical for the company.

We discovered that riders always carry essential items such as water and repair kits

Seeing as frying is the quickest way to cook food, most frying pans have the main material of aluminium, which has proven to be a very suitable material in our research

Boris Bikes’ success came from the fact that this scheme was not taken too seriously, and became a trend through social media.

There was a common trend in the 30% rise of government bike schemes, against the rise in petrol due to the economic recession.

Our primary research from our interviews proves that most cyclists check the weather before riding. Websites such as the Mountain Weather Information Service, give detailed daily weather updates, meaning that riders can be prepared for all cooking conditions.

As the social trend of staycations became more popular due to the economic recession, users are more likely to engage in outdoor activities, hence an increase in cycling.

Due to the advances in suspension technology, riders are pushing themselves further and going to places they never would have before, because they are able to adjust their bikes to their specific riding styles.

Cycling equipment can be very expensive; the type of bike makes a big difference to the cost of accessories. Different types of bikes are needed for varied types of cycling; for downhill biking, a full suspension bike would be recommended (these are also the most expensive types of bikes for sale), whereas for cross-country biking, not much safety equipment is needed other than a helmet which is critical. Some bikers wear gloves, however these are not needed all the time.
As downhill biking is the most dangerous type of cycling, a full face helmet and neck brace are needed, as well as googles, gloves, shorts and other body armour wsuch as knee and elbow pads. Although this equipment can be very pricey, the impact of a crash will only allow accessories to last for a certain amount of time, causing a need for it to be replaced, and therefore become even more costly. There are some visible trends in the clothing the riders wear in downhill biking compared to road and cross country biking, for exmaple it is common to wear tight lycra when cycling, however downhill bikers have moved towards more baggy clothing which have an inner lining.
Mountain biking is an extreme sport which can have a lot of dangerous conseqences. This is due to the nature of the sport, as well as the fact a lot of people who take part in the sport are not professionals, but take up the sport for fun and as a social aspect. The dangers associated with Mountain biking are that riders are often traveling at fast speeds down a steep unpredictable landscape; tracks are often narrow with loose ground, making the injuries that happen very serious. This has a big impact on riders' insurance, making this element of the sport very expensive; however if the rider is using the necessary safety equipment they will be more proected from injury and high insurance costs. Many insurance companies will categorise the type of riding the user is doing, in order to cover all possible incidents; this can be cheap if you are a beginner and not going to extreme locations. The type of group you are insured by, states what type of cover the user will have; going to high mountains and riding for a long time will make the insurance an expensive part of the sport.
Many mountain biking competitions use the incentive of money as a prize as an incentive to have more competitors, however usually only the top riders make enough money to live off their winnings. Alternatives to cash prizes includes sponsorship from companies, which also involves other benefits from the sponsors such as deals to have entry to other compeititons paid for, or even free equipment, which not only gives riders a cheaper experience but gives certain companies a very easy and effect way to advertise to other riders. Even companies who are not directly related to the port of mountain biking such as GoPro and Red Bull will sponsor top athletes to promot their product and give a new identity to their brand image.
SKI RESORTS
Alpe d'Huez: Megavalanche
UK CYCLE SCHEMES
EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES
From our primary research our interviewees shared a range of answers that enabled us to expose some common similarities and differences. They also highlighted some annoyances and personal insights to the sport.
SIMILARITIES
DIFFERENCES
The most common trend proved to be their motivation for riding. All our interviewees’ expressed that they cycled for the adrenaline and fun aspect of the sport. This is further proved by one user who has participated in mountain biking competitions in the past but found it made his hobby into hard work, therefore he now only rides for the enjoyment.

It is also clear that there is a strong social aspect to the sport which is highlighted by the fact that all of our interviewees chose to ride or train in a group of people. A phenomenon that emphasises this is the story told by Tom, 23 who went cycling as a group and strapped beer to his bike to enjoy with his friends during the ride.

All interviewees took a rucksack with them on rides to carry essential items that they could possibly need. For example they all took water and the majority also carried repair kits.

None of the interviewees felt it entirely necessary to cook food on location, most said that they would rather have pre heated food or alternatively prepare food that had a short cooking time. Most indicated that they did not stop for very long periods of time or wait long before setting off again after eating. This highlights their keen interest and enthusiasm to spend the majority of their time riding rather than cooking.

We asked our interviewees if they stopped as certain times to eat and we were told by all users that they nearly always just stopped when they needed to. They all ate foods that they had brought with them, that could be eaten quickly and that were high in energy.

A small difference within our riders was the use of gloves when cycling. All of them wore gloves whilst cycling however the younger users, aged 18 - 23 years old chose to take theirs off whilst eating, whilst our eldest interviewee aged 43, usually kept his on due to the bad circulation in his hands.

Another obvious difference was that the younger generation tended to be more interested in brands. They quoted that they were more careful about what brands they brought whilst others felt that it wasn't as important as long as they were getting a good quality product for the money. However they all agreed that having good quality gear was a top priority.

Most riders drove to trail parks or their cycling location on a regular basis but some cycled straight from their home on local countryside trails more often. However all wished that they could eradicate as much travelling to and from location as possible. Additionally nearly every user rode all year round, making it evidently clear that they all preferred to cycle in summer and did so on a much more regular basis.

WHO?
WHAT?
WHERE?
WHEN?
WHY?
HOW?
People who mountain bike are niche audiences, but they ride twice the amount that others do. Therefore, they are more likely to invest in a cooking device. We have kept our age range of 16-50 years, so that both professional and recreational bikers are included
There are several different types of mountain biking such as cross country and downhill, which suit a range of different riders and fitness levels. Riders should be eating more carbohydrates before riding because it is a fast release energy source. It is also essential to drink water to keep hydrated
There are a range of different motivations for mountain biking including adrenaline rushes, fitness, a sense of freedom and a social aspect
Mountain biking is an all year round sport. The best time for eating is before or after cycling, as stopping in the middle of exercise causes lactic acid to build, making it harder to continue

Secondary research proved that the best mountain biking trails in the UK include areas such as Snowdonia (Wales), the Peak District and Cumbria
Frying is the most rapid way of cooking food, and ensuring that food safety guidelines such as keeping the food above 60 degrees, are met. However, frying is seen as an unhealthier option, compared to other techniques such as boiling.
INSURANCE
SPONSORSHIP
SUSTAINABILITY
OUTCOMES
From these key insights we have been able to identify outcomes that can be taken into account as design considerations in the next stage of the project:

It is important that we design a gender neutral product that does not solely appeal to males as this would promote the stereotypical ‘lad’ culture.

As riders enjoy eating during rides even though it is not the most beneficial time, it would be more useful to design a product that would heat up a snack or small portion rather than a full meal. This would prevent riders from eating more than necessary and building up lactic acid in their muscles when they continue riding.

Riders tend to remove gloves when they are resting therefore the design should be well insulated in order to protect the user from burning themselves whilst cooking or eating.

Furthermore if the rider is wishing to start riding again they do not want to have to wait for the cooking device to cool down before packing it up therefore the outside must have a protective insulating sleeve.

The design should use a fuel type that does not take a long time to heat up as users are not willing to wait for much longer than 10 minutes to cook or heat up their food. An exothermic chemical heater is possible as riders always carry water with them.

If the cooking device is intended to attach to the bike then it must be small enough not to majorly interfere with the bikes function or weight.

The design must adhere to the form of Land Rover’s brand, it must appear rugged and durable as well as having a sense of luxury and style.

The product should be suitable to use in a range of weather and environment conditions therefore should be protected from the elements such as wind and rain. It is also important that there is a way to keep the food safe as the product is likely to get muddy or wet in winter.

Waste disposal and sustainability should be considered as riders do not want to carry excess waste whilst riding or damage the environment by leaving rubbish on location.

It is important to consider sustainability within the cooking device design in order to protect the environm
Full transcript