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European Renaissance

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Scott Wike

on 1 November 2017

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Transcript of European Renaissance

European Renaissance
Period of great cultural change and achievement that transitioned Europe from the Middle Ages to the Early Modern period

Causes of the Renaissance
1) Rediscovery of Classical Works
Scholars from Constantinople reintroduced important works fro Greece & Rome
2) Invention of the Printing Press
Invented by Johann Gutenberg
Moveable type allowed for the mass production of cheap books
3) Political & Social Institutions
Highly urbanized city-states
Rise of mercantile Republics
Geographic center of trade
Competition between elite families for influence and fame
4) Black Death
6) Humanism
Form of cultural activity and educational reform aimed at creating better citizens

5) War & Peace
Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans leads to Christian and Jewish scholars arriving in the West
End of the Hundred Years War spread Italian ideas
House of Medici
Powerful banking family and political dynasty that controlled Florence, Italy
Cosimo de Medici
Lorenzo de Medici
Florence, Italy
Birthplace of the Italian Renaissance
Important Writers
Niccolo Machiavelli
Author of
The Prince
Practical guide for ruling based on power politics, warcraft and popular goodwill
Dante Alighieri
The Divine Comedy
Allegory for the soul's journey towards God
William Shakespeare
Poet and playwright who is regarded as the greatest writer in the English language
Scientific Revolution
Nicolaus Copernicus
Mathematician and astronomer who proposed that the Earth goes around the Sun (heliocentric)
Galileo Galilei
The Father of Modern Astronomy
Improved the telescope and proved the heliocentric model true
Isaac Newton
Key figure of the Scientific Revolution who proved the theory of gravity, invented calculus, advanced optics, etc.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Artistic, mathematical and scientific genius who is considered to be one of the most talented people in history
Tried and found guilty of heresy by the Inquisition
Forced to recant his writings and sentenced to house arrest for life
Vitruvian Man
Botany & Geology
Human Anatomy
Vitruvian Man
War Machines
Protestant Reformation
Renaissance Artists
Albrecht Durer
German painter and printmaker who is regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance
Italian sculpter and painter who is considered one of three Renaissance masters
Leonardo Da Vinci
Four Horseman of the Apocalypse
La Pieta
Sistine Chapel
Mona Lisa
The Last Supper
God Separating Light from Dark
Good Creating the Sun and the Moon
The Creation of Adam
Expulsion from the Garden of Eden
The Catholic Church
Protestant Reformation
Counter Reformation
English Reformation
Europe in 1400
Competition with secular leaders for political power
General moral decay
Exploitation of the poor
Lessening of the time spent in purgatory in exchange for donations to the Church (get out of jail free card)

Crash Course!!!
Martin Luther
German priest who is considered the founder of the Protestant Reformation
Conflict with Johann Tetzel
95 Theses
Series of criticisms against the Catholic Church nailed to the Church door in Wittenberg
Luther's Beliefs
God determines who gets into heaven, not the Church
Saved through faith alone, not actions
Average person should be able to read and interpret the Bible
Priests should marry
Catholic Reaction to Luther
Excommunicated by the Church
Declared outlaw by Holy Roman Empire
German princes & peasants supported causing civil war

Peace of Augsburg
Ended religious war in Germany and allowed princes to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism
Council of Trent
Meeting of Catholic experts to condemn Protestantism, reaffirm Church teachings, and fix corruption
800 year period of successive Christian attacks on Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula
Ferdinand and Isabella
Court system used to maintain Catholic orthodoxy and to root out secretly practicing Muslims and Jews

Henry VIII
Anne Boleyn
Execution of Anne Boleyn
Anne of Cleaves
Tudor king who had
wives and created the Anglican Church
Catherine of Aragon
Anglican Church
Protestant Church founded in England by Henry VIII
Jane Seymour
Catherine Howard
Catherine Parr
Succession to the Throne
Elizabeth I
The Virgin Queen
Settled religious divisions between Catholics and Protestants in England
Cemented England's role as a world power
Edward I
"Bloody" Mary
Death of Henry VIII
Full transcript