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Improving HR

Chapter 7
by

Kayla Costello

on 30 March 2012

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Transcript of Improving HR

What is a negative way to address the scenario?


What is a positive way to address the scenario
Build and Implement an HR Strategy
Keep Employees
Empowering Employees
Provide Information and Support
Encourage Autonomy and Participation
Redesign Work
Foster Self-Managing Teams
Promote Egalitarianism
Promote Diversity
Egalitarianism implies a democratic workplace where employees participate in decision making, rather than having decisions imposed upon them.
"The key to management is to get rid of all the managers.
The key to getting work done on time is to stop wearing a watch.
The best way to invest corporate profits is to give them to the employees.
The purpose of work is not to make money. The purpose of work is to make the employees, whether working stiffs or top executives, feel good about life."
Implementation: Reducing symbolic differences like office size.
The work itself needs to offer opportunities for autonomy, influence, and intrinsic rewards.
Individuals need (1) to see their work as meaningful and worthwhile, more likely when jobs produce a visible and useful "whole", (2) to use discretion and judgment so they can feel personally accountable for results, and (3) to receive feedback about their efforts so they can improve.
Open-book management philosophy:
All employees at every level should see and learn to understand financial and performance measures. Important numbers should be readily available.
Employees are encouraged to think like owners, doing whatever they can to improve the numbers.
Everyone gets a piece of the action -- a stake in the company's financial success.
Not a hierarchical chart, but a set of interconnected teams.

Give groups responsibility for a meaningful whole, with ample autonomy and resources and with collective accountability for results.
Develop a philosophy or credo that makes explicit an organization's core beliefs about managing people. The philosophy then has to be translated into specific management systems and practices. Many organizations never develop one, or ignore the one they have.

A philosophy provides direction; practices make it operational. So the next step is to build systems and practices that implement the philosophy.
Pay should reflect how much your employees are valued. It makes sense to pay top dollar for exemplary contributions of skilled, motivated, and involved employees. Offer attractive benefits like day care and flexible hours.
Sharing profits makes employees feel responsibility for an organization's performance.

Options: gain-sharing, profit-sharing (gives employees a bonus tied to overall profitability or to the performance of their local unit), and employee stock ownership plans.

In order to be effective, plans should follow these "equity model" elements:
Employees must have a significant ownership share in the company.
The organization needs to build an "ownership culture" by sharing financial data, involving employees in decisions, breaking down the hierarchy, emphasizing teams and cross-training, and protecting jobs.
It is important that "employees both learn and drive the business disciplines that help their company do well."
Publix has never had a layoff since its 1930 founding. It had the highest rating of customer satisfaction for the 12th consecutive year in 2007.
Encourages both management and employees to invest time and resources in upgrading skills.
It is a powerful performance incentive.
It fosters trust and loyalty.
It capitalizes on knowledge and skills of veteran employees.
It avoids errors by newcomers unfamiliar with the company's history and proven ways.
It increases the likelihood that employees will think for the longer term and avoid impetuous, shortsighted decisions.
Working in groups can have both benifits and drawbacks
Potential benifits:

different perspectives
variety of ideas
division of work
support
knowledge gain
Potential drawbacks:

dependance on other group members
unequal work loads
dissagreements
distractcions
communication issues
time constraints
Group work can be challanging and frustrating but working in groups in the work place is unavoidable
Informal Group Roles
Mary Parker Follett
Elton Mayo
They challenged the assumption that "workers had no rights beyond a paycheck."
Pioneers of the Frame
Rather people's skills, attitudes, energy and commitment are vital resources that can make or break an enterprise
Core Assumptions of the HR Frame
Organzations exist to serve human needs rather then the converse
people and organizations need each other
organizations need ideas, energy, and talent
people need careers, salaries, and oppurtunities
Organizations
People
Core Assumptions Cont.
When the fit between individuals and system is poor, one or both suffer--> individuals are exploited or they exploit the organization or both become victims.
A good fit benefits both.
Individuals find meaningful and satisfying work.
Organizations get the talent and energy they need to succeed.
Organizations response to individuals
Jobs enable employees
Work fulfillf life-style needs
FIT
How well
Theory X
Managers beliefs about their workers turn into self-fulfilling prophecies.
Managers believe that their employees are lazy, resist change, and like to be led.
this causes managers to either focus on threats and punishments (hard theory x) or try to make every one happy (sofy theory x).
Either way, there are undercurrents of apathy and low productivity
Theory Y
Essential task of management is to arrange conditions so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing efforts towards organizational rewards.
People and Organizations
High
Low
Integrative
Passive
Accommdating
Assertive
5+7=
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
High
Low
Inquiry
Advocacy
Theories-in-Use
Model-1
Model-2
1. Assume the problem is caused by other side.
3. Since the other person is the cause of the problem, get the person to change.
4. If the other person resists or becomes defensive, it confirms that they're the root of the problem.
5. Respond to resistance through some combination of intensifying pressure and rejecting the other person.
6. If unsuccessful, it is the other person's fault.
Interpersonal
Dynamics

(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
Management Styles
just as with the larger organization, "fit" between individuls in a group is important.
Task Roles:
focus is on getting the job done
and making the best use of available resources
Personal Roles:
focus is on maintaining harmony and dealing with interpersonal dynamics to reduce frustation and unproductive or disruptive behaviors.
Group Dynamics in Organizations
Individualistic Roles:
ungelpful to the group. Examples include dominator, avoider and attention seeker.
Groups tend to be most productive and cohesive when there is a balance between task and relationship roles.
Discussion
Informal Group Norms
Norms are rules for how the group should function and how group members should conduct themselves.
Group norms should integrate the group members' individual efforts into a unified whole.
Informal Networks in Groups
In groups, networks are the patterns of who relates to who. The more cohesive a group is, the more prouctive they tend to be.
Many Chartwells employees feel they are underpaid, overworked, and underappreciated. What can the company do to empower its employees?
Groups with close ties are more effective and more likely to stay together that groups without connections.
Interpersonal Conflict in Groups
Leadership in Groups
A Look at Google
Human Resource Frame
Kayla Costello, Angela Petit-Frere, Wendy de los Reyes, & Alyssa Ronsenberg
2. Develop private unilateral diagnosis and solution.
Would you want to work here?
Robert Owen
"Only capitalist of his time who didn't believe in working 8 year-olds in 13 hour factory shifts. "
"Instead, he provided clean, decent housing for his workers and their families in a community free of contagious disease, crime, and gin shops."
Yes!
Was he right?
High involvement, high performance, or high commitment management practices produce enormous economic returns. But why don't all managers follow this model?
Hire the Right People
Know what kind of people you want, hire those who fit the mold. This leads to little employee turnover, except among new hires who are quickly weeded out as not fitting into the company's culture.
Be selective.
Protect Jobs
Reward Well
Promote From Within
Share the Wealth
1. Emphasize common goals and mutual influence.
2. Communicate openly; publicly test assumptions and beliefs.
3. Combine advocacy with inquiry.
Democratic
Laissez-faire
Autocratic
Invest in Employees
Invest in Learning
Create Development Opportunities
Undertrained employees harm organizations with shoddy quality, poor service, higher costs, and costly mistakes.
example: In post-invasion Iraq, some of America's most costly mistakes were the work of private security contractors, who often had less training and discipline than their military counterparts.
Consideration
Initiating Structure
Motorola found a gain of $29 for every $1 invested in sales training.
emotional intelligence
: skills that include awareness of self and others and the ability to handle emotions and relationships

importance:

higher ability to perceive accurately, understand, and appraise others' emotions

allows one to respond more flexibly to changes in their social environment and more able to build supportive social networks
Anne Barreta

strength of bonds between group members
unity or "we-ness"
feelings of attraction for specific group members and for the group itself
coordination of efforts to achieve goals

All of these factors combine to create a "binding force" that keeps the group together.
minimal learning
strained relationships
deterioration in decision making
Interpersonal conflict is caused by differences in goals, points of view, preferences and beliefs.
How should groups handle interpersonal conflict?
"Pour oil on troubled waters"
avoid conflict at all costs

"Might-makes-right"
black and white of "right" and "wrong"
create sides
Guidelines to constructively handle conflict:
Agree on basics
Take time in the beginning to build a foudation before plunging ahead.
Search for common interests
Finding commonalities makes confronting differences easier.
Experiment
This allows the group to move past a stalemate without anyone admitting defeat
Leadership
helps groups gain a sense of direction, challanges group members and encourages them to do well.
Leadership doesn't have to mean just one person is in charge.
Good leaders
attend to both task and process, and help group members communicate and work together well. They do not try to dominate the group or try to make sure that their ideas are the only ones accepted.
A key aspect of leadership in high performing groups is
mutual accountability
.
Works because it shows that management trusts people. It creates a powerful incentive for employees to contribute. It also furnishes information they need to do a better job.
The development of programs under the label of participation have been highly successful. These programs give workers more opportunity to influence decisions about work and working conditions.
Group leadership and cohesion
Group Cohesion
Careers, salaries, opputunities
Ideas, energy, and talent
Strategies that are typically used but makes things worse instead of better:
Frustrated Employees Cope by:
Withdrawing
physically or psychologically
Resisting
Climbing the Hierarchy
Forming alliances
Teach children that work is unrewarding
Good leaders have
self-awareness, self management and social management
Summary
When individuals find satisfaction and meaning in work, the organization profits from effective use of their talent and energy. Organizations should use "high-involvement" strategies to improve HR management. No single strategy will be effective by itself; success requires a comprehensive strategy undergirded by a long-term philosophy.
Investing in PEOPLE
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