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Transcript of STEPHEN HAWKING
Stephen William Hawking (born 8 January 1942) is an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge.
Early life and education
Stephen Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 to Frank and Isobel Hawking. Both parents had attended the University of Oxford, where Frank had studied medicine and Isobel, Philosophy, Politics and Economics.The two met shortly after the beginning of the Second World War at a medical research institute where Isobel was working as a secretary and Frank as a medical researcher.
Hawking went up to Oxford University in October 1959 at the age of 17. For the first 18 months, he was bored and lonely: he was younger than many other students, and found the academic work "ridiculously easy". His physics tutor Robert Berman later said, "It was only necessary for him to know that something could be done, and he could do it without looking to see how other people did it." A change occurred during his second and third year when, according to Berman, Hawking made more effort "to be one of the boys".
Stephen Hawking has worked on the basic laws which govern the universe. With Roger Penrose he showed that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied space and time would have a beginning in the Big Bang and an end in black holes. These results indicated that it was necessary to unify General Relativity with Quantum Theory, the other great Scientific development of the first half of the 20th Century. One consequence of such a unification that he discovered was that black holes should not be completely black, but rather should emit radiation and eventually evaporate and disappear. Another conjecture is that the universe has no edge or boundary in imaginary time. This would imply that the way the universe began was completely determined by the laws of science.
A brief history of time
Among his significant scientific works have been a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity, and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation.
We will take a peek of his achievements later in our journey in the life of a living genius .
Hawking was the first to set forth a cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He is a vocal supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.
He is an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts, a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. Hawking was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009.
Hawking has achieved success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general; his A Brief History of Time stayed on the British Sunday Times best-sellers list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking has a motor neuron disease related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a condition that has progressed over the years. He is almost entirely paralysed and communicates through a speech generating device. He married twice and has three children.
He has two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward. Hawking began his schooling at the Byron House School; he later blamed its "progressive methods" for his failure to learn to read while at the school.
In St Albans, the family were considered highly intelligent and somewhat eccentric; meals were often spent with each person silently reading a book.
The family placed a high value on education. Hawking had long discussions about Christianity and extrasensory perception with his friends. From 1958, and with the help of the mathematics teacher Dikran Tahta, they built a computer from clock parts, an old telephone switchboard and other recycled components. Although at school he was known as "Einstein", Hawking was not initially successful academically. With time, he began to show considerable aptitude for scientific subjects, and inspired by Tahta, decided to study mathematics at university.
Hawking's father advised him to study medicine, concerned that there were few jobs for mathematics graduates. He wanted Hawking to attend University College, Oxford, his own alma mater. As it was not possible to read mathematics there at the time, Hawking decided to study physics and chemistry. Despite his headmaster's advice to wait till the next year, Hawking was awarded a scholarship after taking the examinations in March 1959.
He had to take an oral examination in order to get a first-class BA degree. Hawking was concerned that he was viewed as a lazy and difficult student, so when asked at the oral examination to describe his future plans, he said, "If you award me a First, I will go to Cambridge. If I receive a Second, I shall stay in Oxford, so I expect you will give me a First."He was held in higher regard than he believed: as Berman commented, the examiners "were intelligent enough to realise they were talking to someone far cleverer than most of themselves". After receiving a first-class BA (Hons.) degree, and following a trip to Iran with a friend, he began his graduate work at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, in October 1962.
He struggled with his health. Hawking had experienced increasing clumsiness during his final year at Oxford, including a fall on some stairs and difficulties when rowing. The problems worsened, and his speech became slightly slurred; his family noticed the changes when he returned home for Christmas and medical investigations were begun. The diagnosis of motor neurone disease came when Hawking was 21. At the time, doctors gave him a life expectancy of two years. After his diagnosis, Hawking fell into a depression; though his doctors advised that he continue with his studies, he felt there was little point. At the same time, however, his relationship with Jane Wilde, friend of his sister, and whom he had met shortly before his diagnosis, continued to develop. The couple were engaged in October 1964. Hawking later said that the engagement "gave him something to live for."
Despite the disease's progression—Hawking had difficulty walking without support, and his speech was almost unintelligible—he now returned to his work with enthusiasm. Hawking started developing a reputation for brilliance and brashness when he publicly challenged the work of Fred Hoyle and his student Jayant Narlikar at a lecture in June 1964.
Inspired by Roger Penrose's theorem of a spacetime singularity in the centre of black holes, Hawking applied the same thinking to the entire universe, and during 1965 wrote up his thesis on this topic. There were other positive developments: Hawking received a research fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, and he and Jane were married on 14 July 1965. He obtained his D.Phil. degree in March 1966, and his essay entitled "Singularities and the Geometry of Space-Time" shared top honours with one by Penrose to win that year's Adams Prize.
His many publications include The Large Scale Structure of Spacetime with G F R Ellis, General Relativity: An Einstein Centenary Survey, with W Israel, and 300 Years of Gravity, with W Israel. Stephen Hawking has three popular books published; his best seller A Brief History of Time, Black Holes and Baby Universes and Other Essays, The Universe in a Nutshell, and most recently in 2010, The Grand Design.
Professor Hawking has twelve honorary degrees. He was awarded the CBE in 1982, and was made a Companion of Honour in 1989. He is the recipient of many awards, medals and prizes, is a Fellow of The Royal Society and a Member of the US National Academy of Sciences.
Stephen was diagnosed with ALS ( a form of Motor Neurone Disease ). In spite of being wheelchair bound and dependent on a computerised voice system for communication Stephen Hawking continues to combine family life (he has three children and three grandchildren), and his research into theoretical physics together with an extensive programme of travel and public lectures. He still hopes to make it into space one day.
Films and series
The films about Stephen are :
A Brief History of Time (1992)
Stephen Hawking's Universe (1997)
Hawking – BBC television film (2004)
Horizon: The Hawking Paradox (2005)
Masters of Science Fiction (2007)
Stephen Hawking: Master of the Universe (2008)
Into the Universe with Stephen Hawking (2010)
Brave New World with Stephen Hawking (2011)
Stephen Hawking's Grand Design (2012)
WHY STEPHEN HAWKING ?
Why i wanted to present stephen hawkıngs lıfe ? A very good and an important questıon. I wanted Stephen because he always reminds me that with enough determination everything is possible . He founded so many theories that explain our universe by just thinking because of his ASL . He is the symbol of the power of our minds and our wills . He is one of the people that fascinate me everytime i look to their works .
what ever some ignorant people say Stepehen Hawkıng is one of the greatest scientists of all time and he is something far more than just a disabled person he is the beacon of knowledge .
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
THANK YOU STEPHEN