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Daniela K

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Music in Twelfth Night and Romeo and Juliet
There are only five music directions in the Folio version of Twelfth Night, which is quite limited, considering the musical performances cited in the play. “Music (plays)” is used twice on the same page; “Clown sings” (twice) and “Catch sung.” Music directions in Romeo and Juliet are two “Music plays: and the dance” and “Play music” which is fair enough for a tragedy.
“Tragedy demanded less music than any other genre on the Elizabethan stage. The tradition of the theatre favored an abundance of song in comedy but little or no lyric relief in tragedy” (Sternfield 1).
“When Englishmen wrote their first formal five-act tragedies and comedies in the sixteenth century, ancient dramas were among the most prominent models” (Sternfield 2).
Works Cited

Duffin, Ross W. Shakespeare’s Songbook. W.W. Norton & Company, 2004.
Lindley, David. Shakespeare and Music. Thompson Learning, 2006.
Long, John H. Shakespeare’s Use of Music. Gainesville: University of Florida press, 1961.
Naylor, Edward W. Shakespeare and Music. The Project Gutenberg EBook, 2006.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo and Juliet. The Arden Edition of the Works of William Shakespeare.
Ed. Rene Weis. London: Methuen Drama Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2012.
---.Twelfth Night. The Arden Edition of the Works of William Shakespeare.
Ed. Lothian, J.M. and T.W. Craik. London: Methuen & Co. LTD, 1975.
---. First Folio. http://shakespeare.bodleian.ox.ac.uk
Sternfield, Frederick W. Music in Shakespearen Tragedy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1963.
Stern, Tiffany. Making Shakespeare: from Stage to Page. London: Routledge, 2004.

Image Sources

---. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare: New Illustrated Edition. London: Flame Tree Publishing, part of The Foundry Creative Media Co. Ltd., 2011
Introduction by Dr. Harron Butcher
---.Twelfth Night. The Arden Edition of the Works of William Shakespeare.
Ed. Lothian, J.M. and T.W. Craik. London: Methuen & Co. LTD, 1975.
---. First Folio. http://shakespeare.bodleian.ox.ac.uk

ROMEO If I profane with my unworthiest hand
This holy shrine, the gentle fine is this:
My lips, two blushing pilgrims, ready stand
To smooth that rough touch with a tender kiss.

JULIET Good pilgrim, you do wrong your hand too much,
Which mannerly devotion shows in this;
For saints have hands that pilgrims' hands do touch,
And palm to palm is holy palmers' kiss.

ROMEO Have not saints lips, and holy palmers too?

JULIET Ay, pilgrim, lips that they must use in prayer.

Romeo and Juliet (1.5.92-101)

Shakespeare dared to change this tradition and utilized music in all his plays – comedies, tragedies or histories. This provoked a wave of criticism from his contemporaries and mostly, Ben Johnson (Sternfield 8).
“Shakespeare’s plays were written exclusively for performance by the Chamberlain’s Men (after 1603 the King’s Men)” (Sternfield 1).
Sternfield suggests that the move to the newly-built Globe Playhouse and the appointment of Robert Armin, an actor who could sing well, were the factors that determined Shakespeare’s growing use of music (Sternfield 98).
“William Kemp and Robert Armin were the King’s Men actors singers. They were named in the Folio 1623 list of “Principal actors”. “Armin succeeded Kemp in 1599 as the new clown of the company” (Sternfield 98).
In his Shakespeare’s Songbook, Duffin reports that Shakespeare utilized eight popular “sung” songs in Twelfth Night (“O Mistress Mine”; “Hold Thy Peace”; “Come Away, Come Away Death”; “I Am Gone Sir”; “O, the Twelfth Day of December”; “Ah Robin”; “Farewell Dear Love”) and alluded to four others (“Diana”; “Peg a Ramsey”; “Three Merry Men”; “There Dwelt a Man in Babylon”). Duffin claims that, unfortunately, “the original music survived only for five of these songs (40)
Shakespeare utilized one popular “sung” song in Romeo and Juliet ( “When Griping Grief”) and alluded to seven others (“Walsingham”(“Frauncis New Jigge”); “King Cophetia and the Beggar Maid”; “An Old Hare Hoar”; “Ratcathcher”; “Welladay”; “Hunt’s Up”; “Heart’s Ease”).

Both Twelfth Night and Romeo and Juliet treat the theme of love. They both start in a similar way – Duke Orsino suffers a requited love with Ophelia while Romeo—with Rosaline.
Later, Romeo falls in love with Juliet who loves him too. Duke Orsino finds that his true love is the disguised Viola who had secretly loved him from the very beginning. Olivia, on the other hand, discovers that she loves Sebastian (Viola’s twin brother) who falls in love with her at first sight. What makes Twelfth Night a comedy and Romeo and Juliet— a tragedy is the fact that Twelfth Night ends with weddings and Romeo and Juliet— after their wedding—with the lovers’ death.

Romeo and Juliet in the tomb
Juliet and her Nurse
Romeo and Juliet
Orsino and Viola
Viola and the Duke listening to Feste's song
"If music be the food of love"
“Music is much more than ornament” (Lindley 199)

In both Twelfth Night and Romeo and Juliet music and songs have an important role; they not only entertain the audience, but along with the lyrics, sometimes imbedded in dialogue, they contribute to a better understanding of the plays. In Romeo and Juliet the allusions to music and songs are more than the “sung” songs and played music. The music played for Juliet’s and Paris’ wedding is in striking contrast with Juliet’s supposed death thus making the tragic events more powerful.
Romeo & Juliet
Frauncis New Jigge (Walsingham)

Bessie: As I went to Walsingham
To the shrine with speed
Met I with a jolly Palmer
In a Pilgrim’s weed.
Now God save you, jolly Palmer.
Frauncis: Welcome Lady gay,
Oft I sued to thee for love
Bessie: Oft I have I said you nay.

(Duffin 422)

Keywords: “shrine”, “Pilgrim” and “Palmer”
banter between suitor and lady (Duffin 422)
Sir Toby Belch
Come on; there is sixpence for you: let's have a song.
Sir Andrew
There's a testril of me too: if one knight give a--
Would you have a love-song, or a song of good life?
Sir Toby Belch
A love-song, a love-song.

Twelfth Night (II.3.30-36)

Mercutio. Alas, poor Romeo! he is already dead;
... run thorough the ear with a love-song.

Romeo and Juliet ( II.4.15-16)
love songs
Shakespeare referred to “love songs’ in dialogue of both the plays. He speaks ironically of “love songs” alluding to the characters’ love longings.
Capulet. All things that we ordained festival
Turn from their office to black funeral:
Our instruments to melancholy bells;
Our wedding cheer to a sad burial feast;
Our solemn hymns to sullen dirges change.

Romeo and Juliet (IV.5.84-89)

(funeral songs)

Peter. Musicians, O, musicians! "Heart's ease, Heart's ease"! O, an you will have me live, play "Heart's ease."
1 Musician. Why "Heart's ease?"
Peter. O, musicians, because my heart itself plays—"My heart is full of woe." O! play me some merry dump, to comfort me.
2 Musician. Not a dump we: 'tis no time to play now.

Romeo and Juliet (IV.5.100-106)

(plaintive tunes)

These "classes of songs" are only used in Romeo and Juliet because their "mournful character" do not suit well either the merry, or the melancholy mood in Twelfth Night .
"In the following quotation 'dirges' are mentioned by name"( Naylor 110).

"'Love-songs' are quite a large class, frequently referred to" (Naylor 82).

"classes of songs", "mournful character"
(Naylor 128)
John Long notes that Twelfth Night starts with music and ends with music. Songs and snatches of songs, as well as instrumental music are spread through out the play, but not overwhelmingly. He, referring to another aspect of the music in the play, divides it into “two distinctive groups, the sweet and plaintive music associated with Duke Orsino and the lusty songs and ballads assigned to Sir Toby and his friends” (164).
Andrew. Most certain. Let our Catch be, Thou knave.
Clown. Hold thy peace, thou Knave, knight? I shall be
constrained in't to call thee knave, Knight.
Andrew. 'Tis not the first time I have constrained one to call me knave. Begin, fool: it begins Hold thy peace.
Clown. I shall never begin if I hold my peace.
Andrew. Good, i' faith. Come, begin.
Catch sung

Twelfth Night (II.3.62-70)

In addition to the music played, Romeo and Juliet is written in verse what makes it sound very musically. As Duffin notes “The relation between poetry and music is as old as the poetry itself. Poems were from the beginning described as songs” (11).
Catch or Round
“The two names were interchangeable in the 16th and 17th centuries. First, a Catch or Round of the best type of Elizabethan times consisted of one melody, generally perfectly continuous. Secondly, the said melody was always divisible into a certain number of equal sections, varying from three to six, or even eight; and as many sections as there were, so many voices were necessary. Thirdly, each of these equal sections was deliberately arranged so as to make Harmony with every other” (Naylor 90).
“Shakespeare employed two different techniques by means of which he wove songs into his tragedies: tragic song was employed to supplement tragic speech; and comic song was made to participate in tragic whole” (Sternfield 8).
This compounding of tragic and comic genres is the aspect which critics of Shakespeare’s tragedies have found most difficult to accept. The role of the serving-man Peter with his song in Romeo and Juliet was offensive even to Goethe (Sternfield 9).

Shakespeare inserted, cited or simply alluded to more than a hundred songs in his plays, which is a sign that he was fluent in the popular songs of his time (Duffin 15). This suggests that he was a part of society, of its everyday life, of its new fashions, festivities, traditions and beliefs. Although Shakespeare’s new approach to including music in tragedies was not welcomed by his critics, people could feel the reverberating life in his plays, and this corresponded very well to their emotional and social needs. This is a part of his genius and why he was so popular, something that allowed him to manipulate his audience without their noticing it. Nowadays we experience the same phenomenon when we watch movies with soundtracks containing music, both popular and classical.

“After 1599 Robert Armin became the principal instrument of Shakespeare’s orchestra. That he could sing easily and intelligently was an important attribute. . . He was the “wise” fool of Shakespeare” (Sternfield 117).
It is interesting to note that Shakespeare’s usage of music and development of characters was influenced by the available personnel. In the presence of an intelligent singing actor, Shakespeare increased the number of songs used in his plays This could also be the reason for Shakespeare to assign to Feste his "wise" final song in Twelfth Night.

“The roles played by Armin [Feste, Touchstone] differ from those of Peter [Kemp] in Romeo and Juliet in that there is a greater participation in the action of the play and an easier exchange of remarks with important characters . . . Peter’s quatrain from a lyric by Edwards, interspersed with ten lines of prose, was the most extensive bit of singing Shakespeare entrusted to Kemp. By contrast, following his trial role as Touchstone, Armin was assigned for four sizable lyrics in Twelfth Night” (111), Sternfield.

Then have at you with my wit! I will dry-beat you
with an iron wit, and put up my iron dagger. Answer
me like men:
'When griping grief the heart doth wound,
And doleful dumps the mind oppress,
Then music with her silver sound'—
why 'silver sound'? why 'music with her silver
sound'? What say you, Simon Catling?
Marry, sir, because silver hath a sweet sound.
Pretty! What say you, Hugh Rebeck?
Second Musician
I say 'silver sound,' because musicians sound for silver.

Romeo and Juliet (IV.5.120-131)

Peter' song "When griping grief the heart doth wound", helps him to express and overcome the big pain in his heart caused by Juliet's supposed death. Music with her “silver sound” (“silver sound” not because of the ‘sound of silver (money)' as one of the musicians suggests) but because of the healing power that it possess. Shakespeare was aware of that healing power of music and used it in one of the most mournful scenes of the play as a means of deeper touch of the souls of his audience.
However, it happened sometimes that the existing conventions for italicizing song titles and lyrics were not strictly observed by the compositors of the First Folio. A good example of that are the lyrics “When griping griefes the heart doth wound, /then Misicke with her silver sound” which are not italicized (Romeo and Juliet 73). Moreover, as there is no music direction provided, it could be a real problem for the Folio readers to understand that these lines are sung, not read.
As Tiffany Stern observes, “When you look at a folio or a quarto version of a Shakespeare play . . . the use of a different type-face for certain bits of the playtext will be immediately apparent . . . Those bits of a play are the prologues, the epilogues, the songs and the letters; all four tend to be visible separated from the body of the text” (113). The Folio convention was to center the stage directions and print them, as well as the song lyrics, in italics to differentiate them from the rest of the text. Some sections of text were italicized for no obvious reason, however. Nevertheless, a lot of music stage directions were not necessary because it was generally obvious which of the cues were song or music-related. Some rules and conventions that were well known in Shakespeare’s time, however, are no longer available to the modern reader.
Another good example on the compositors’ influence on the text of the plays is Feste’s final song in the Folio version. A closer look helps us to notice that the refrain verses “with hey, ho, the wind and the rain” and “for the raine it raineth every day” are fully written only in their first appearance, while in their next ones they look like accordingly: “with hey, ho, etc.” and “for the raine, etc.” It was difficult and time consuming for the compositors in the Shakespeare’s age to type a single line. No “copy-paste” technologies existed and the use of “etc.” instead of typing a whole repeating line was the only possible way for them to save time and efforts in the production of this remarkable book.
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