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Experimental research in translation

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Adnaw Nyszolow

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Experimental research in translation

Experimental research in translation Experimental research in translation “The aim, according to Jakobsen, is to track the way in which different processes succeed one another or interact dynamically and see what linguistic material they operate on in order to build a dynamic model of translation.” (Korouni, 2011) Process-oriented experiments

“Analysis of the final product (the translated text) incomplete and often misleading way into the translation process, hiding both successful strategies and problems.” (Bernardini 2001) External / Internal processes (“black box”)
(Schubert, 2009 in Christensen, 2011)

Mental processes:

conscious (cognitive) / subconscious (Göpferich 2008 in ibid)

non-automated / automated (Gabryś-Barker 2009 in: ibid)

Information processing takes place in different buffers:

SR = Sensory Register
STM = Short Term Memory
LTM = Long Term Memory
(Gabryś-Barker 2009 in: ibid) Krings’ model (2005 in: ibid)
Online / Offline methods applied in translation process research Situational Embodied Cognition paradigm

– the individual + present environment = integral part of the processes of thought and behavior (Risku 2010 in: ibid)

Distributed Cognition paradigm

– distributed phenomenon across individuals and across
internal and external representations (=artifacts) (Hutchins, 2000 in: ibid) Online methods:
Observation of Behavior:
Observation protocols
Video recording
Computer protocols:
Eye tracking
Keystroke logging (Translog)
Screen capture (Camtasia Studio, Clearview)
Brain pattern measurements
Verbal report data:
TAPs = Talk aloud / think aloud and dialogue protocols Metacognition Offline methods:
Product analysis:
TT analysis, translation notes, other translations by the same author, translations of the same text by different translators

Verbal report data:
Retrospective comments, interviews, questionnaires and generalized interviews and questionnaires Dragsted (2004, 2006 in: Christensen 2011)
carried out 2 experiments:

-In 1st experiment examined how professional translators and students segment texts w i t h o u t a TM (Translog + Trados; quantitative data)

-In another experiment they used a TM and were asked about the perception of their behavior and the interaction with the TM. A study carried out by Séguinot (Séguinot, 1996, in: Bernardini, 2001) revealed:

students at higher levels of the course in specialized translation (=> higher level of proficiency) translating from FR into EN show more efficient monitoring and revising strategies

...and work more at the textual level, whereas either students at lower level of the course or non-native speakers seem to rely more on learned principles and lexical-level processes. Tendencies of professional translators (unlike non-professional) (Lörscher, 1996, in: ibid):

-orientation towards meaning (vs. form)
-greater size of translation units /segments
-greater amount of monitoring of the TT
-greater attention devoted to stylistic and typological adequacy Both groups – without a TM – worked with clauses or phrases (though truer for professionals);

Both groups were less inclined to alter the sentence structure of the ST with a TM;

The non-professionals found that the TM helped in focusing on sentences, whereas professionals said it complicated their processing;

TM reduces the time spent on the revision and also make both groups revise the TT on the end of each segment rather than whole text. Proposal for a Cognitive Theory and Interpreting

Comprehension + reformulation + production
Mental model of the text / discourse
Micro and Macro structure of the text / discourse

Type of memory used in translation / consecutive / simultaneous interpreting Advantages

-Allows to create scenarios that would not occur in natural conditions
-Allows precise measurements impossible or difficult in natural conditions
-Higher probability of isolating some factors impossible to separate in natural scenario – accuracy?
-Lower costs - Multitude of variables
- Large quantities of elicited data involved
- Impossibility of separating other factors
- Impossibility of observation of internal processes Process-oriented Translation Studies

“What goes on in translators’ heads while they are translating vs. what scholars had claimed might go on” (Bernardini, 2001)

Experimental vs. theoretical

Experimental vs. naturalistic "Individuals are only conscious of the processes taking place in the STM when the individual needs information stored in the LTM, the information is retrieved from the LTM and then activated in the STM." (Ericsson and Simon, 1984 in: ibid) Experimental research in translation Dynamic model of translation “Psychological model of comprehension requires a series of processing resources residing in STM” (Baddeley 1990 in Padilla, 1999) - max 7 units (Miller 1956 in: ibid).

Several components of STM:
-Phonological storage
-System of visual /special storage
-System of attention control Alves, Fabio, Combining Processbased and Productbased Approaches to Foster Empiricalexperimental Research on Translation, Research Models in Translation Studies, 2011, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil http://www.llc.manchester.ac.uk/ctis/activities/conferences/researchmodels2/panels/fileuploadmax10mb,179330,en.pdf
Bernardini, Silvia, “Think-aloud protocols in translation research”, Bologna, 2001, http://www3.uji.es/~aferna/EA0921/3c-TAPs.pdf
Christensen, Tina Paulsen, “Studies on the Mental Processes in Translation Memoryassisted Translation – the State of the Art”, 2011, Aarhus http://www.trans-kom.eu/bd04nr02/trans-kom_04_02_02_Christensen_Translation_Memory.20111205.pdf
Göpferich, Susanne, Jääskeläinen, Riitta, “Process research into the development of translation competence: where are we, and where do we need to go?”, 2009 Graz http://www.uni-saarland.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Professoren/fr46_ProfGerzymisch-Arbogast/AS/G%C3%B6pferich_J%C3%A4%C3%A4skel%C3%A4inen.pdf
Korouni, Kyriaki, “Report on the 1st PhD Summer School on Translation Process Research, 2011, Thessaloniki http://www.est-translationstudies.org/committees/summer_school/reports/2011_kourouni_EST-SSS_report2.pdf
PACTE Group, Barcelona, 2005 http://www.erudit.org/revue/meta/2005/v/n2/011004ar.html
PACTE Group, “Results of the validation of the PACTE translation competence model - acceptability and decision making”, 2009 Barcelona, http://ddd.uab.cat/pub/artpub/2009/67883/PREI2010_acrlanculv10n2.pdf Bibliography Hindrances Pitfalls
- Neglected confounding variables
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