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TOK Presentation

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Prateek Chandra

on 18 May 2016

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Transcript of TOK Presentation

Mao Zedong was an effective leader of the communist but Chang Kai Shek, the president of the country, was a nationalist who was against him.
A war occurred between them and started to use different tactics to suppress each other.
Although the communist were at a disadvantage, they won the war using propaganda.
Russia supported the communist the party. But the western countries were against communist, which was known as Iron Curtain Policy to support all the anti communist countries

Why only democracy?
Perhaps one of the reasons to this could be that democracy makes every individual feel empowered and not marginalized.

Democracies are not perfect; it does have its drawbacks. Aristotle talks about how “for a right election can only be made by those who have knowledge; those who know geometry…”

Geometry in this saying means people who have good education.
Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which leads to major transition and change of a society.

Civil unrest occurs when social, economic, and political stress accumulate slowly, and is released spontaneously in the form of anger.

These social unrest events span the full spectrum from civil wars, revolutions, and coups that generally kills millions of people to relatively peaceful forms of intra-state conflicts, such as anti-government demonstrations, riots, and general strikes.
Civil Disorder/Unrest
Primary Research Question
Upto what degree does the form of government determines the well-being of its own citizens?
Police Violence

"Guide: Syria Crisis." BBC News. 04 Sept. 2012. BBC. 30 Mar. 2014 <http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-13855203>.

"INTER PRESS SERVICE." Inter Press Service. 28 Mar. 2014 <http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/11/syrias-economy-may-be-devastated-for-30-years/>.


http://necsi.edu/affiliates/braha Civil_Unrest_Braha_Arxiv2012.pdf

"Types of Governments." Alverno. 30 Mar. 2014 <http%3A%2F%2Fdepts.alverno.edu%2Fdgp%2FGEC%2FTypes%2520of%2520Government.html>.
Inspiration for the Topic
Rethinking Reality,
Rethinking Identity
The chosen topic assimilates both the concepts of Reality and Identity.

Governments and hierarchical systems have been imbibed in our history, and so their operation is sometimes considered more trivial and it actually is.

While a government is a defining factor in determining the IDENTITY of a nation, it is quintessential for it to be REAL in the way it handles it citizens.
14 School Children Arrested: All below 14
The civil unrest in Syria began in the southern city of Deraa in March 2011

The locals came together and demanded the release of 14 school children who were arrested.

They were tortured because of the well known slogans written by them such as "The people want the downfall of the regime."
From the initial ideas of Thomas Hobbes (17th Century) to the latest debates on television shows, a lot has been talked about regarding the ideal form of government.

Although one of the most popular search phrases on google, not much has been written in the strictest academic research paper form on this topic. This further motivated me to get the numbers and do the math.
How my research approach is different
Having taken inspiration from the Syrian crisis, I decided to revolve my research on certain pillars that define a government.

Of the 4 government types chosen, I have evaluated each on a set of 5 different weights, and given a real life example of each form and its implications.

The disadvantages of each of these forms of government have been discussed in detail in order to arrive at the conclusive statement.
Social inequality
Social inequality refers to relational processes in society that have the effect of limiting or harming a group’s social status, social class, and social circle.

These include violation of basic rights on the basis of social differences. This plays a vital role in causing a civil war.

When one’s freedom and rights are abused to an extent one cannot bear it, conflict is inevitable.

When the government officials use illegal means to gain the extra ‘black money’ for their own profits and gains, a revolt is justified.

Corruption, now a deadly virus, is ruining not only the lives of its citizens, but the country itself.

Corruption also leads to various economic problems which in turn are causes of civil wars.
External Influence
Unemployment is the lack of job offers available to the public.

This again affects the economic stability because money is important to live, and without job, there is no money.

Without employment workers may rebel upon industrialist, which can cause a civil war between the high class and the low class society.

Democracy is a form of government of the people, for the people and by the people. It is a supreme power where the its functions is vested in the people and exercised by them.

People should conducted regular surveys of their representatives and have freedom to form their opinions about them.

Head of the nation is elected either by citizens or by the country's state and central legislatures.

Citizens have their basic and fundamental rights which no one can snatch from them.
Monarchy is a type of government where the supreme power is claimed and controlled in the hands of a king/queen.

The supreme power is inherited by heirs from their ancestors. The powers are birth rights with royal families.

Life long rule. The ruler has absolute power on deciding when to hand over charge to the successor.

The power of the monarch are minutely limited by the constitution.
Dictatorship is an autocratic form of government where a single ruler has absolute power and command over all pivotal decisions and pacts.

Dictators have an illogical and paramount sense of patriotism for their country and they do anything possible to instill it in all other people.

Dictatorships are certainly one party rules where censorship is promoted and feelings are suppressed.

Individual liberty is definitely not one of the parameters.
It is a classless, moneyless and stateless structure of government where income of the nation is divided among its own citizens according to their respective shares.

It contradicts capitalism and aims to abolish ownership of private property.

In this system all means of production are under state ownership and control.

The forces of demand and supply are balanced by central planning and not by the automatic market mechanism.
A government is a governing body of a state, country, or community that controls its welfare.

The following points are the basic function of a government:

Providing services and welfare to the society.
Protecting the society from the violence and invasion of other independent societies
Establish law enforcement and equality among the people.
Provide economic stability
Provision of basic needs ; food, clothes, shelter and education.

More emphasis on quantity than on quality because democracy is all about majority.

Voters do not take interest in elections.

Decision of the voters may be biased because many voters are uneducated.

Influence of money while deciding the candidates can lead to corruption.

Disadvantages of Democracy
Democratic Republic of Congo
Conflict in the DRC started from the misguidance and lack of democracy from the government since its independence.

Lumumba was killed after one year of independence in the year of 1961.
Mobutu gained power and renamed the country to Zaire in 1965.
He got support from the US during the cold war. After Cold war US lost interest in Zaire
Rwanda invaded Zaire in 1997 and renamed it to DRC.
All the business and the property is owned by government.

People dont have the freedom of speech.

The needs of the consumer are not taken into consideration.

Productivity and the efficiency is difficult to achieve.

The aspiration of the people is lost because everything is owned by the government
Disadvantages of Communism
Communism in China
A single person rules the country or state over a long period of time (mostly for life time)

The people have no choice but to stay under the ruler even if he or she is not functioning properly or according to the will of people.

The citizens do not take any tension to work for the betterment of peoples as he/she knows that they are not answerable to anyone.

The people have no voice in the politics of their country unless the monarch is a true man of the people.

Disadvantages of Monarchy
Loss of freedom of choice and expression for the people.

Citizens are not allowed to vote for the country.

The government have absolute power so they might not think for the betterment of their own citizens.

The rules and laws of normal political structures may not apply in this kind of governance.

Dictatorships are often create a brutal set of living conditions.
Disadvantages of Dictatorship
Ever since Hitler came to power in 1933 the Jews in Germany were persecuted; they were subjected to restrictions, sometimes beaten up in the street and bullied, into leaving Germany.

Jews in many places (for example, Berlin and Warsaw) were forced to live in the same area and in and were isolated from the society.
Some jews were slaughtered and killed on the streets.
Jews were forced to live in concentration camps where they lived harsh conditions of starvation, illness and bad weather conditions.
Hitler and the Jews
Subsidiary Questions of Interest
To what degree does the misgovernance of a government affect the citizens and the country as a whole ?

To what degree can social inequality spark unrest within a nation ?

To what degree does external influence affect the harmony of the country and the government ?
Related Topics = Human Science/ Ethics, Reason

Related Topics : Ethics/ Religion, Emotions
Related Topics: History, Human Science,
Sense Perception
The conflict started dissatisfaction against Nepal’s traditional autocratic system ruled by Queen Rajendra Lakshmi (1846 - 1951)

In 1959, Nepalis caught their very first glimpse of democracy, when King Mahendra adopted a multi-party constitution but ended in one year.

Eight years after King Mahendra died, the masses rose to demand participation from his successor, King Birendra in 1980.

In 1996 the communist party of Nepal (Maoist) launched a civil war to abolish the 240 year old monarchy which claimed lives of 17,000 people and 100,000 to seek refuge in other countries.

Nepalese Civil war
It is the sway and repercussion caused by a neighboring nation or other super powers to the politics and constitutional make up.

The decision of a trading partner to halt all forms of trade can cause heavy loss to the political structure and may cause an upheaval of public rage.

Conclusion -
Wholesome Perspective
Police Violence too can easily cause an agitation which in turn can evolve into a civil war.

Police violence can take place when a demonstration, peaceful or aggressive, has to be stopped forcefully.

At other times, it can be caused due to abuse of powers by the police.

Under such circumstances, the general public may revolt against the government.
Inflation is the rise in general price of goods and services.

High inflation rates increases the foreign exchange rate and hence weakens the local currency.

With increase in living cost, and low income, the public might not be able to bear the inflation.

Thus, in order to stabilize their economic instability, a revolt is justified.

Ongoing Research on this Topic?
According to the situations discussed so far, there is no form of government which is perfect and in each type of government there are instances of civil unrest.

There is no rule book that can make a perfect government so the formation of a new government should depend on the history, culture, people's opinions and the current circumstances of the country.

A successful government will be that government which can identify the needs and wants of the people.
According to us the people in Syria want change in the government for better living conditions so the current ruler should step down for the betterment of the country.

During this transition to form a new efficient and people friendly government Syria may face a new set of problems eg. lack of governance, instability and financial crunch.

Another point of view to this real life situation could be that the government should change its modus operandi of the governance. In this way conflict can be avoided.
By :
Prateek Chandra
Sahil Nandal
Shubham Rastogi

Melina, Remy. "What Are the Different Types of Governments?" LiveScience. 14 Feb. 2011. TechMedia Network. 30 Mar. 2014 <http://www.livescience.com/33027-what-are-the-different-types-of-governments.html>.

"Democratic Republic of Congo profile." BBC News. 29 Mar. 2014 <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-13286306>.

"Nepal profile." BBC News. 30 Mar. 2014 <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-12499391>.

"Communism and Computer Ethics." Communism: In China. 29 Mar. 2014 <http://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs201/projects/communism-computing-china/china.html>.

MARCKUSLIU. "Why Is Democracy So popular?" PHIL 152 Philosophy of Human Nature. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Mar. 2014.

Conclusion - Syrian angle to it
An Explanation Of The Perfect Form Of Government Through The Mistakes Done By Then
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