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Transcript of Indigenous Perspectives
Jacob Cram (Christianity only)
Pontiac, "Speech at Detroit"
Pontiac's War (1763-1766)
Recounts the experience of Neolin
A Short Narrative of My Life
Converted to Christianity
Chief Logan, "Chief Logan's Speech"
Yellow Creek Massacre (9 killed and scalped)
As the population of colonists increased, the relationship between colonists and Native Americans deteriorated drastically
While the relationships between settlers and Native Americans varied during the early periods of colonization, the relationships were (generally speaking) mutually beneficial.
From Europeans' perspective, the difference between civil and barbarous generally boiled down to religion, which was mobilized to justify Europeans' claims to the "New World" and to denigrate Native Americans
How does Pontiac view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
"I am the Maker of heaven and earth, the trees, lakes, rivers, and all things else. I am the Maker of mankind; and because I love you, you must do my will. The
on which you live I have made for
. Why do you
men to dwell among you? My children, you have
of your forefathers. Why do you not clothe yourselves in
, as they did, and use the
bows and arrows
, and the stone-pointed lances, which they used? (223-224)
What response does Pontiac suggest?
guns, knives, kettles, and blankets, from the
men, until you can no longer do
all these things away;
as your wise
lived before you. (224)
As for these
dressed in red, who have come to
you of your
, and drive away the game,-- you
them from the face of the earth. (224)
How does Occom view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
began to visit us and
the Word of God; and the Common People all Came frequently and exhorted us to the things of God, which it
pleased the Lord
, as I humbly hope, to Bless and accompany with Divine Influence to the
of a Number of us. (225)
What response does Occom suggest?
was, as Soon as the Children got together, and took their proper Seats, I
with them, then began to hear them. I generally began (after some of them Could Spell and Read,) With those that were yet in their Alphabets...I concluded with
3 or 4 Times a Week according to the Assembly's Shout or Catechism, and many Times Proposed Questions of my own, and in my own Tongue. (226)
Religion and Education
How does Logan view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
man to say, if
he entered Logan's cabin
, and he gave him not meat; if ever he came
, and he
him not. (228)
Col. Cresap, the last spring, in
all the relations of Logan,
. There runs not a
of my blood in the veins of
living creature. (228-229)
What response does Logan suggest?
This called on me for
. I have
it: I have
many: I have fully
. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of
. But do
harbor a thought that mine is the joy of
. He will
turn on his heel to save his
. Who is there to mourn for Logan?--No one. (229)
How does Red Jacket view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
a time when our
day came upon us.
the great water and landed on this island. Their numbers were
. They found
... at length their numbers had
. They wanted
land; they wanted
country. Our eyes were
, and our minds became
country, but are
satisfied; you want to
upon us (230)
What response does Red Jacket suggest?
You say there is but
way to worship and serve the Great Spirit.
there is but
religion, why do you
about it? (231)
We are told that
religion was given to
forefathers, and has been
from father to son.
also have a
, which was given to our
, and has been
to us their children.
way. It teaches us to be
for all the favors we
each other, and to be
quarrel about religion (231)
religion, or take it from you. We only want to enjoy our
Tecumseh, "Speech to the Osages"
Treaty of Fort Wayne
Tenkswatawa (the Prophet)
How does Tecumseh view the expansion of the European population and influence in America?
of many of our
has run like
on the ground, to satisfy the
men first set foot on our grounds, they were
; they had
place on which to spread their blankets, or to kindle their fires. They were
; they could do
, and shared
with them whatever the Great Spirit had given his red children. (232)
What response does Tecumseh suggest?
you do not
with us, they will first
us, and then you will fall an
to them. They have
nations of red men because they were
They wish to
our warriors; they would
Who are the
people that we should
, and are good marks to shoot at: they are only men;
many of them: we are not
we will stain the earth with their blood.
Benjamin Franklin, "Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America"
More to come...
How does Franklin's view of Native Americans differ from what we have previously seen?
But now was all our provision spent, the sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned, each hour expecting the
fury of the savages
, when God the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the
, that they brought such plenty of their fruits, and provision, as no man wanted.
Review of European Views
Their names are of two sorts: First, those of the English giving: as
natives, savages, Indians, wildmen
(so the Dutch call them wilden),
Abergeny men, pagans, barbarians, heathen.
we call them, because their
differ from ours, which we think the
; they think the
Several of our young people were formerly brought up at the colleges...but when they came back to us, they were bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the woods, unable to bear either cold or hunger, knew neither how to build a cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy, spoke our language imperfectly, were therefore neither fit for hunters, warriors, nor counselors (245)
If the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons, we will take great care of their education, instruct them in all we know, and make men of them (245)
The good missionary, disgusted with this idle tale said, "What I delivered to you were sacred truths; but what you tell me is mere fable, fiction, and falsehood." The Indian, offended, replied, "My brother, it seems your friends have not done you justice in your education; they have not well instructed you in the rules of common civility. You saw that we, who understand and practice those rules, believed all your stories; why do you refuse to believe ours?" (246)
'No,' says he, 'I cannot give so much; I cannot give more than three shillings and sixpence.' I then spoke to several other dealers, but they all sung the same song... This made it clear to me, that my suspicion was right; and, that whatever they pretended of meeting to learn
, the real purpose was to consult how to cheat Indians in the price of beaver. (247)
To examine what grievances Native Americans had with Europeans
To analyze the range of responses Native Americans proposed to address the expansion and encroachment of Europeans
To understand the roles economics and Christianity played in Native-European interactions
Native Americans addressed European expansion/encroachment through a wide range of responses that varied from assimilation to hostility.
While Europeans' encroachment on Native land was a volatile issue, Native Americans were also aware of the (deleterious) influence of European material, educational, and religious culture
How did the Enlightenment alter the colonial consciousness?
How did the difference between social/economic classes influence the founding of the United States
Questions to Ponder
Compare and contrast Europeans' and Native Americans' views of Christianity. How did the tension between these views contribute to the development of conflict?
Economic relationships played a pivotal role in how the relationship between Europeans and Native Americans developed. Compare and contrast Europeans' and Native Americans' views of these economic relationships. How did these groups benefit from these relationships? How were they harmed?
Education played an important role in indigenous-settler interactions. How was education mobilized by Europeans to serve their expansionist goals.
How did each author view the expansion of Europeans and their influence?
What response did each author propose in regards to their particular view?