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Indigenous Perspectives

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Derric Ludens

on 12 October 2017

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Transcript of Indigenous Perspectives

Red Jacket, "Reply to the Missionary Jacob Cram"
Seneca

Jacob Cram (Christianity only)
Objectives
Pontiac, "Speech at Detroit"
Ottawa Indian

Pontiac's War (1763-1766)

Recounts the experience of Neolin
Samson Occom,
A Short Narrative of My Life
Pequot

Converted to Christianity

Reverend (1759)
Chief Logan, "Chief Logan's Speech"
Iroquois





Yellow Creek Massacre (9 killed and scalped)
Indigenous Perspectives
Crevecoeur
Champlain
Smith
Bradford
Williams
Rowlandson
Pontiac
Occom
Logan
Red Jacket
Tecumseh
Franklin
Review
As the population of colonists increased, the relationship between colonists and Native Americans deteriorated drastically
While the relationships between settlers and Native Americans varied during the early periods of colonization, the relationships were (generally speaking) mutually beneficial.
From Europeans' perspective, the difference between civil and barbarous generally boiled down to religion, which was mobilized to justify Europeans' claims to the "New World" and to denigrate Native Americans
p. 223
Group #1
How does Pontiac view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
"I am the Maker of heaven and earth, the trees, lakes, rivers, and all things else. I am the Maker of mankind; and because I love you, you must do my will. The
land
on which you live I have made for
you
, and
not
for
others
. Why do you
suffer
the
white
men to dwell among you? My children, you have
forgotten
the
customs
and the
traditions
of your forefathers. Why do you not clothe yourselves in
skins
, as they did, and use the
bows and arrows
, and the stone-pointed lances, which they used? (223-224)
What response does Pontiac suggest?
You have
bought
guns, knives, kettles, and blankets, from the
white
men, until you can no longer do
without them
...
Fling
all these things away;
live
as your wise
forefathers
lived before you. (224)
As for these
English
,--these
dogs
dressed in red, who have come to
rob
you of your
hunting-grounds
, and drive away the game,-- you
must
lift the
hatchet
against them.
Wipe
them from the face of the earth. (224)
p. 225
Group #2
How does Occom view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
Some
Ministers
began to visit us and
Preach
the Word of God; and the Common People all Came frequently and exhorted us to the things of God, which it
pleased the Lord
, as I humbly hope, to Bless and accompany with Divine Influence to the
Conviction
and
Saving Conversion
of a Number of us. (225)
What response does Occom suggest?
My
Method
in the
School
was, as Soon as the Children got together, and took their proper Seats, I
Prayed
with them, then began to hear them. I generally began (after some of them Could Spell and Read,) With those that were yet in their Alphabets...I concluded with
Prayer
... I
Catechised
3 or 4 Times a Week according to the Assembly's Shout or Catechism, and many Times Proposed Questions of my own, and in my own Tongue. (226)
Religion and Education
p. 228
Group #3
How does Logan view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
I
appeal
to any
white
man to say, if
ever
he entered Logan's cabin
hungry
, and he gave him not meat; if ever he came
cold
and
naked
, and he
clothed
him not. (228)
Col. Cresap, the last spring, in
cold

blood
, and
unprovoked
,
murdered
all the relations of Logan,
not sparing
even my
women
and
children
. There runs not a
drop
of my blood in the veins of
any
living creature. (228-229)
What response does Logan suggest?
This called on me for
revenge
. I have
sought
it: I have
killed
many: I have fully
glutted
my
vengeance
. For my country, I rejoice at the beams of
peace
. But do
not
harbor a thought that mine is the joy of
fear
. Logan
never
felt
fear
. He will
not
turn on his heel to save his
life
. Who is there to mourn for Logan?--No one. (229)
How does Red Jacket view the expansion of the European population and its influence in America?
There
was
a time when our
forefathers

owned
this
great
island...but an
evil
day came upon us.
Your
forefathers
crossed
the great water and landed on this island. Their numbers were
small
. They found
friends
and not
enemies
... at length their numbers had
greatly

increased
. They wanted
more
land; they wanted
our
country. Our eyes were
opened
, and our minds became
uneasy
(230)
Group #4
You
have
got
our
country, but are
not
satisfied; you want to
force
your
religion
upon us (230)
What response does Red Jacket suggest?
You say there is but
one
way to worship and serve the Great Spirit.
If
there is but
one
religion, why do you
white
people
differ
so
much
about it? (231)
We are told that
your
religion was given to
your
forefathers, and has been
handed down
from father to son.
We
also have a
religion
, which was given to our
forefathers
, and has been
handed down
to us their children.
We
worship in
that
way. It teaches us to be
thankful
for all the favors we
receive
, to
love
each other, and to be
united
. We
never
quarrel about religion (231)
We do
not
wish to
destroy

your
religion, or take it from you. We only want to enjoy our
own
. (231)
p.230
Summary
Summary
Summary
Summary
Tecumseh, "Speech to the Osages"
Shawnee

Treaty of Fort Wayne

Tenkswatawa (the Prophet)
How does Tecumseh view the expansion of the European population and influence in America?
The
blood
of many of our
fathers
and
brothers
has run like
water
on the ground, to satisfy the
avarice
of the
white
men. (232)
Group #5
When the
white
men first set foot on our grounds, they were
hungry
; they had
no
place on which to spread their blankets, or to kindle their fires. They were
feeble
; they could do
nothing
for themselves.
Our
fathers
commiserated
their
distress
, and shared
freely
with them whatever the Great Spirit had given his red children. (232)
What response does Tecumseh suggest?
If
you do not
unite
with us, they will first
destroy
us, and then you will fall an
easy

prey
to them. They have
destroyed

many
nations of red men because they were
not

united
. (233)
p.232
Summary
They wish to
kill
our warriors; they would
even

kill
our
old

men
,
women
, and
little

ones
(233)
Who are the
white
people that we should
fear
them? Then
cannot
run
fast
, and are good marks to shoot at: they are only men;
our
fathers have
killed
many of them: we are not
squaws
, and
we will stain the earth with their blood.
(233)
Benjamin Franklin, "Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America"
Scientist/diplomat

Enlightenment

More to come...
How does Franklin's view of Native Americans differ from what we have previously seen?
p.244
Summary
But now was all our provision spent, the sturgeon gone, all helps abandoned, each hour expecting the
fury of the savages
, when God the patron of all good endeavors, in that desperate extremity so changed the hearts of the
savages
, that they brought such plenty of their fruits, and provision, as no man wanted.
Review of European Views
Their names are of two sorts: First, those of the English giving: as
natives, savages, Indians, wildmen
(so the Dutch call them wilden),
Abergeny men, pagans, barbarians, heathen.
Smith 60
Williams 104
Savages
we call them, because their
manners
differ from ours, which we think the
perfection
of
civility
; they think the
same
of
theirs
. (244)
Education
Religion
Williamsburg College...?
Several of our young people were formerly brought up at the colleges...but when they came back to us, they were bad runners, ignorant of every means of living in the woods, unable to bear either cold or hunger, knew neither how to build a cabin, take a deer, or kill an enemy, spoke our language imperfectly, were therefore neither fit for hunters, warriors, nor counselors (245)
If the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their sons, we will take great care of their education, instruct them in all we know, and make men of them (245)
The good missionary, disgusted with this idle tale said, "What I delivered to you were sacred truths; but what you tell me is mere fable, fiction, and falsehood." The Indian, offended, replied, "My brother, it seems your friends have not done you justice in your education; they have not well instructed you in the rules of common civility. You saw that we, who understand and practice those rules, believed all your stories; why do you refuse to believe ours?" (246)
'No,' says he, 'I cannot give so much; I cannot give more than three shillings and sixpence.' I then spoke to several other dealers, but they all sung the same song... This made it clear to me, that my suspicion was right; and, that whatever they pretended of meeting to learn
good things
, the real purpose was to consult how to cheat Indians in the price of beaver. (247)
To examine what grievances Native Americans had with Europeans
To analyze the range of responses Native Americans proposed to address the expansion and encroachment of Europeans
To understand the roles economics and Christianity played in Native-European interactions
Groupwork
Summary
Native Americans addressed European expansion/encroachment through a wide range of responses that varied from assimilation to hostility.
While Europeans' encroachment on Native land was a volatile issue, Native Americans were also aware of the (deleterious) influence of European material, educational, and religious culture
Future Snapshot
How did the Enlightenment alter the colonial consciousness?
How did the difference between social/economic classes influence the founding of the United States
Questions to Ponder
Compare and contrast Europeans' and Native Americans' views of Christianity. How did the tension between these views contribute to the development of conflict?
Economic relationships played a pivotal role in how the relationship between Europeans and Native Americans developed. Compare and contrast Europeans' and Native Americans' views of these economic relationships. How did these groups benefit from these relationships? How were they harmed?
Education played an important role in indigenous-settler interactions. How was education mobilized by Europeans to serve their expansionist goals.
How did each author view the expansion of Europeans and their influence?
What response did each author propose in regards to their particular view?
Pontiac
Essentialism (Economic)
Warfare
Occom
Assimilation (Religious)
Hybridity
Red Jacket
Essentialism (Religious)
Tolerance (Religious)
Intertextual Analysis
Logan
Unprovoked Hostility
Resignation?
Intertextual Analysis
Tecumseh
Unprovoked Hostility
Retributive Violence
Full transcript