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Transcript of Bullying
by: Alison Cook, Corey Cronin, Laura Hass, Amanda Wagner
The pitifulest thing out is a mob; that's what an army is
--a mob; they don't fight with courage that's born in them, but with courage that's borrowed from their mass, and from their officers. But a mob without any man at the head of it, is beneath pitifulness.
- Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
The Summer Camp Studies
24 white, middle-class boys ages 11-12 divided into two groups. Made sure to divide best friends.
Competitions (baseball, tug-of-war) between the
2 groups caused aggressive behavior to escalate.
First name calling then eventually violence.
After 2 weeks over 90% indicated that their best friend was someone in their own group.
Muzafer Sherif 1961
The Role of the Bystander
"In the end, we will remember not the words of our enemies, but the silence of our friends"
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
The Bullies are the "Cool" Kids
1. Superior mental health (lack of psychological stress)
2. Higher level of social prestige among their classmates
3. Less Loneliness
4. Less Social Anxiety
Bullying Among Young Adolescents: The Strong, the Weak, and the Troubled - Juvonen, et al. Pediatric Journal December 2003
1. Are the least popular kids
2. Suffer from the greatest amount of depression, anxiety and loneliness
3. Have the lowest social status
Compared with bullies and victims, the bully-victim has the worst of both worlds, and a unique risk profile. Higher levels of:
1. Conduct problems.
2. Social Avoidance.
3. School Disengagement.
1. Bystanders rarely intervene.
2. Passive acceptance encourages the bully.
3. Bystanders represent the biggest challenge for anti-bullying intervention.
Bullying: ‘‘A student is being bullied or victimized when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students’’
- Dan Olweus
Cyber-bullying: ‘‘Willful and repeated harm inflicted through the use of computers, cell phones, or other electronic devices”
Why bullying?/What we want to know
How We As Teachers Can Help
Teachers are responsible for acting on this issue...
Elements of Bullying
Incidents of bullying almost always occur in the presence of peers making it a group process
6 roles: bully, assitant, reinforcer, victim, defender, and bystander
Different forms of bulling include: relational, verbal, physical, and cyberbullying
Prevalent issue among 7th and 8th grade students
bullying peaks in middle school and declines in high school
Impacts a studen'ts emotional and physical health, as well as social and academic well being
Want to know what we as teachers can do to support our students around this issue!
Students involved in
are at higher risk of self-harm, high stress, or suicidal thoughts or actions
Higher risk of alcohol and drug use, depression, anxiety and low self-esteem
Physical bullying can cause bodily harm to victims and perpetrators
Boys are more likely to experience physical bullying more than girls
Cognitive empathy is found to be negatively associated with bullying behavior
Cognitive empathy vs. Affective empathy
The lower their cognitive empathy the more children bully
Generally girls seem to be more empathetic than boys
Cyberbullies show less affective empathy than cybervictims and noninvolved peers
Both affective and cognitive empathy are positively associated with defenders
Having more friends associated with more bullying and less victimization
Students whose friends engage in cyberbullying are more likely to engage in it themselves
Girls more likely to experience relational victimization - left out, ignored, glared at, rumors spread
Students perpetuate bullying by joining in or by passively accepting it
Students stop bullying by intervening and defending victim
Create a safe place
If you see something, say something
Start a peer mentoring program/restorative justice program
Know your students, pay attention to social dynamics
Collaborate with school counselors
grassroots not top-down approach
Red Flags for Victims
Visible, unexplainable injuries
Lost or destroyed personal items (clothing, books, electronics)
Frequent feeling sick or faking illness to go home
Declining grades, loss of interest in school work
Sudden loss of friends
Social withdrawal and isolation
Avoidance behaviors of certain people or places
Decreased self-esteem, acting helpless
Increased depression or anxiety
Self-destructive behaviors like self-harm or talk of suicide
Red Flags for Bullies
Frequent physical or verbal fights
Have friends who bully others
Increased aggressive behavior
Sent to principal's office or detention frequently
Have unexplained extra money or new belongings
Blame others for their problems
Don't accept responsibility for their actions
Are competitive and worry about their reputation or popularity
Espelage, D. L., Polanin, J. R., & Low, S. K. (2014). Teacher and staff perceptions of school environment as predictors of student aggression, victimization, and willingness to intervene in bullying situations. School Psychology Quarterly,29(3), 287-305. doi:10.1037/spq0000072
Mishna,F., Cook, C., Gadalla, T., Daciuk,J.,&
Noorden, T., Haselager, G., Cillessen, A., & Bukowski, W. (2015). Empathy and Involvement in Bullying in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.
Journal Of Youth & Adolescence
, 44(3), 637-657.
Rivers, I., & Noret, N. (2010). Participant roles in bullying behavior and their association with thoughts of ending one’s life. Crisis: The Journal Of Crisis Intervention And Suicide Prevention, 31(3), 143-148. doi:10.1027/0227-5910/a000020
Shriberg, D., Burns, M., Desai, P., Grunewald, S., & Pitt, R. (2015). A Multiyear Investigation of Combating Bullying in Middle School: Stakeholder Perspectives. School Psychology Forum, 9(2), 143-161.
Solomon,S. (2010). Cyber bullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
, 80(3), 362-374.
Studer, J. R., & Mynatt, B. S. (2015). Bullying prevention in middle schools: A collaborative approach. Middle School Journal, 46(3), 25-32.
Waasdorp, T. E., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2011). Examining student responses to frequent bullying: A latent class approach.Journal Of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 336-352. doi:10.1037/a0022747
Goldstein, Arnold P. The Psychology of Group Aggression. Wiley 2002 EBook
Juvonen, Jaana Bullying Among Young Adolescents: The Strong, the Weak and the Troubled Pediatrics Journal, December 2003