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Endocrine and lymphatic Systems
Transcript of Endocrine and lymphatic Systems
Many of the hormones are "releasing hormones", which are secreted into an artery that carries them directly to the pituritary gland. These releasing hormones signal secreation of stimulating hormones called somatostatin. which causes the pituitary gland to stop the release of growth hormones, which makes you stop growning. The Pituitary Gland. The Pituitary Gland is located at the base of the brain beneath the hypothamus and is about the size of a pea. Alot of the time people say its the most important part of the endocrine system, becasue it produces hormones that effect alot of the endocrine glands. When the pituitary gland slows down and doesn't produce one or more hormones it is called hypopituitarism. The pituitary gland has two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior hormones produce the growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, andrenocorticotropin hormone, luteining hormone, and prolactin hormone. The Growth Hormone The growth hormone stimulates growth of bone and tissue. When you don't have enough of these hormones you end up with a growth deficiency. Growth deficiency in children result in growth failure. Growth hormone deficiency in adults result in problems in maintaing proper amounts of body fat and muscle and bone mass. The Thyroid Stimulating Hormone. This hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. The lack of thyroid hormones either because of a defect in the pituitary or the thyroid itself is called hypothyrodism. The Adrenocorticotropin Hormone. The Luteinizing Hormone. This hormone Stimulates the adrenal gland to produce several related hormones. The luteinizing hormone controls sexual function
and production of the sex steriods, estrogen and progesterone in females or testosterone in males. The posterior lobe produces the antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin which are not regulated by the hypothalamus. The Posterior Lobe. The Antidiuretic & Oxytocin The antidiuretic hormone controls water loss by kidneys, and the oxytocin hormone contracts the uterus during childbirth and stumulates milk production. The hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary are actually produced in the brain and carried to the pituitry gland through nerves. They are stored in the pituitary gland. The Thyroid Gland The thyroid gland is located in the lower front part of
the neck. It produces thyroid hromones that regulate the body's metabolism. It also plays a role in bone growth and development of the brain and nervous system in children. The pituitary gland controls the release of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones also help maintain normal blood pressure, heart rate, digestive, muscle tone, and repoductive function. The Parathyroid Gland. The parathyroid glands are two pairs of small glands embedded in the surface of the thyroid gland, one pair on each side. they release parathyroid hormone, which plays arole in regulating calcuum, levaels in the blood and bone metabolism. The Adrenal Glands. The adrenal glands are triangelar shaped glands located on top of each kidney. The adrenal glands are made up of two parts. The outer part is called the adrenal cortex, and the inner part is called the adrenal medulla. The outer part produces hormones called corticosteroids which regulate the bodies metabolism, the balance of salt and water in the body, the immune system and sexual function. The inner part, or adrenal medulla produces hormones called catecholamines. these hormones help the body cope with physical and emotional stress by increasing the heart rate and blood pressure. The Reproductive Gland The reproductive glands are the main source of sex hormones. In males, the testes, located in the scrotum secrete hormones called androgens. The most important in which is testosterone.
These hormones affect many male characteristics as well as sperm production. In females the overies, located on both sides of the uterus produce estrogen and progesterone as well as eggs.
These hormones controle the developement of female characteristics and are also invovled in reproductive functions. The Pancreas. Last but not least and still just as important as the other organs is the pancreas. The pancreas is an elongated organ located towards the back of the abdomine behind the stomach. The pancreas has digestive and hormonal functions. One part of the pancreas, the exocrine pancreas secretes digestive enzymes.
The other part of the pancreas, the endocrine pancreus, secretes hormones called insulin and glueagon. These hormones regulate the level of glucose in the blood. The Pineal body The Pineal body which is also called the pineal gland
is located in the middle of the brain and secrets the hormone melaton
which may help regulate the wake-sleep cycle of the body. Lymphatic System The lymphatic system consist of a complex network of vessels, tissue and organs. What does the lymphatic system do? The lymphatic system helps maintain fluid balanced in the body by collecting excess fluid and matter from tissue and depositing them in the blood stream, and helping defend the body if infection. The lymphatic system is similar to a dranage system because as blood circulates through the body, blood plasma leaks into tissue through the thin walls of the capillaries. The protion of blood plasma that escapes is call extracellular fluid, and it contains oxygen, glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients needed by tissue cells. Most if the fluid seeps immediately back into the blood stream. But a little of it is "left behind". The lymphatic system removes the this fluid and materials from tissue, returing them to the blood stream, which prevents a fluid imbalnce that would result in the organisms death. The Journey back. The fluid and proteins within the tissue begin their journey back to the bloodstream by passing into tiny lymphatic capillaries are infuse in almost every tissue of the body. There are only a few organs that are free of lymphatic capillaries they are the epidermis of the skin, the mucous membranes, the bone marrow and the central nervous system. The regions such as the lungs, gut, genitourinary system and dermis of the skin are densely packed with vessles. The lymphatic vessles. Once within the lymphatic system, the extracellular fluid, which is now called lymph, drains into larger vessels call lymphatics. These vessels converge to form one or two large vessels called lymphatic trunks which are connected to veins at the base of the neck. One side of the trunk:the right lymphatic duct, drains the upper right portion of the body, returing lymph to the bloodstream via the right subclavian vein. The other trunk, the thoracic trunk, drains the rest of lymph into the left subclavian vein. Left subclavian vein Right subclavian vein How the lymphatic system helps keep you immune from diseases. In the human body, the thymus and bone marrow are main organs. The lymphocytes come from stem cells in the bone marrow. Lymphocytes are disease fighting cells they are a type of white blood cell in the immune system. Lymphocytes can be divided into large lymphocytes and small lymohocytes. Large lymphocytes include killer cells. Small lymphocytes consist of T-cells and B-cells. Stem cells that want to become B-cells stay in the bone marrow while they grow. And T-cells travel to the thymus to undergo further growth.. Fully developed B and T lymohocytes leave the primary lyphoid organs and are taken by the blood stream to the secondary lymphoid here they become active by contact with foreign material. The thymus The thymus is located right behind the sternum in the uppser part of the chest. In the human body the thymus is seen early in fetal development and continues to grow until puberty. In the cortex of the thymus, thymocytes come to distinguish between the body's own components, referred to as "self" amd things that are foreign to the body, called "nonself". The thymocytes go through a process call positive selection
Positive selection is where thymocytes are exsposed to self molecules. The cells that recognize the body's molecules are preserved , while the ones that cannot bind the molecules are destroyed The thymus then moves to the medulla of the thymus, the cells that have the ability to attack the body's own tissues are killed in a process called negitive selection. Positive and negitive selection kill alot of thymocytes, only 5% survive to exit the thymus. Those that survive lead the thymus through special passages called outgoing lymphatics, which drain to the blood and secondary lymphoid organs. Bone Marrow In the human body the primary organ for B- lymphocytes develpment is the bone marrow. Unlike the thymus, the bone marrow does not downgrade at puberty. And therefore there is no associated decreae in the production of B lymohocytes with age. Secoundary lymphoid organs. Secondary lymphoid organs included the lymph nodes, spleen, and small masses of lymph tissue the appendix, tonsils, and selected regions of the body's mucosal surfaces. The secondary lymphoid organs serve two basic functions: they are a site of further lymphocyte maturation, and they efficently trap antigens for exsposure to T and B-cells. Lymph nodes Lymph nodes or lymph glands are small, encapsulated bean-shaped structures, composed of lymphatic tissue. Thousands of lymph nodes are found through out the body. They show up more in areas around the armpit. Lymph along with antigens, drain into the node through incoming lymphatic vessels and goes through the lymph node, where it comes in contact with lymphocytes which are activated. Activated lymphocytes carried in the lymph, exist the mode through th outgoing vessels and eventually enters the blood stream where they are distributed thoughout the body. Spleen. The spleen is found in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. It is made kindof like the lymph nodes, but the spleen filters blood rather than lymph. Mucosa assocuated tissue. The mucosa lymphoid tissue are associated with mucosal surfaces of almost every organ, like the digestive and respiratory tracts which always exspose harmful bacteria and therefore need there own system of protection to capture the bad organsisms