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Copy of Fertile Crescent Notes

notes on the fertile crescent and possibly egypt

Gloria Cox

on 11 January 2016

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Transcript of Copy of Fertile Crescent Notes

the fertile crescent
Fertile Crescent
is also known as...
the cradle of civilization.
the Tigris and Euphrates.
Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Egypt.
The Fertile Crescent - The location of the first civilizations in the world.
A crescent-shaped area from the Tigris and Euphrates river valley, north into Turkey, and then south to the Nile River.

(the Land Between the Rivers)

Mesopotamia is the land in between the Tigris and Euphrates river
, which is mostly in modern-day Iraq.
So how does a civilization start, anyhow?
(this is a question for you to answer...)
People learn to farm...
Other people notice, and start too...
Suddenly there's a bunch of people all farming in the same spot...
With a bunch of spare time...
And so they start making a culture.
What things make up culture? What would these villagers need to create?
Language, art, music, cooking, dancing, morality, story-telling sculpture, pottery, jewelry, family, friends, architecture, religion, theater, sports, and just about every other complicated human behavior.
As more and more people move around, and villages start trading together, one place becomes the best place for people to go to trade.
Cultural Diffusion is how culture moves from place to place. It happens through migration, trade, and warfare.
This place becomes a city.
The city will eventually control the surrounding villages.
A City-State is a city that controls the surrounding land and villages.
City-states have rulers, priests, soldiers, and artisans.
As they collect taxes, they can become more powerful. They can go to war and control other city-states.
An Empire is a city-state or group of states that controls other states and land.
Let's zoom out for a second, and check on our notes.
What is Mesopotamia?
The land between the Tigris and Euphrates river.
How does cultural diffusion work?
Culture is spread through migration, trade, and war
What is a city-state?
A city that controls the villages and land around it.
Define "Empire"
A group of states and land controlled by one ruler.

Rivers are very important for growing food.
Irrigation moves water from the river to the fields. It also helps to control floods.
They used canals and dams to control the water.
Ziggurats were huge temples for the gods.
They are a kind of pyramid.
They invented a form of writing called Cuneiform. It was needed to keep records of trade. Only a few people, called scribes, could write.
It evolved over time from
pictographs (word pictures)
into writing.
Why is writing so important?
The Code of Hammurabi was one of the first recorded codes of laws. It is from 1772 BCE.
The Code of Hammurabi introduced the idea of the strong protecting the weak.
"An eye for an eye"

"Spare the rod and spoil the child."
Vocabulary List

Fertile Crescent
Tigris and Euphrates
Cultural Diffusion
Code of Hammurabi
Code of Laws

A code of law -
all of the laws written down in one place.
But not even dams and canals could protect them from the river, which flooded often.
Some people believe that these floods are the origin of the flood in the bible.
What did they use irrigation for?
Irrigation moved water from the river to the fields and helped control floods.
What is a Ziggurat?
A large temple to the gods and a type of pyramid.
Define Cuneiform
Mesopotamian writing that came from pictographs (word pictures). It was written by scribes.
Why is the Code of Hammurabi important?
One of the first recorded codes of law (1772 BCE), Introduced the idea of the strong protecting the weak
Define Code of Laws
All of the laws of a civilization written down in one place.
Full transcript