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Psychology Revision AS
Transcript of Psychology Revision AS
-over simplified - only one LTM and STM Phonological Store
(inner ear) Articulatory loop
(inner voice) Central executive The Phonological
Loop The visio -
(inner eye Case studies such as KF who was brain damaged with an impaired STM with words presented verbally but not visually suggesting an impaired articulatory loop Central executive is vague and simplistic Factors affecting Eye witness Testimony Misleading information Loftus and Palmer (1974) using leading questions Participants were shown a film of a car crash. They were then asked a series of questions including 'About how fast were the cars going when they hit each other?' In different conditions, the word 'hit' was replaced with 'smashed', 'collided', 'bumped' or 'contacted' Results: The Participants were split into three groups. One group was given the verb 'smashed', another 'hit' and the third group wasn't given any indication of the vehicles' speed. A week later, the participants were asked 'Did you see any broken glass?' Results: Although there was no broken glass in the film, participants were more likely to say that they'd seen broken glass in the 'smashed' condition than any other.
Conclusion: Leading Questions can affect the accuracy of people's memories of an event. Watching a video is not as emotionally arousing as a real-life event, which potentially affects recall may lead to demand characteristics reducing the validity and reliability of the experiment Working Memory Model Multi-Store Model Age Valentine and Coxon (1997) Method: Three groups of participants (children, young adults and elderly people) watched a video of a kidnapping. They were then asked a series of leading and non leading questions about what they had seen.
Results: Both the elderly people and the children gave more incorrect answers to non-leading questions. Children were misled more by leading questions than adults or the elderly.
Conclusion: Age has an effect on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony Evaluation: This has implications in law when children or elderly people are questioned. However, the experiment was artificial and so wasn't as emotionally arousing as the same situation would have been in real life- the study lacks external validity Anxiety Yerks Dodson - 'Inverted - U- Hypothesis' suggests that high levels of anxiety leads to a decline in memory encoding and retrieval, yet moderate levels of anxiety improve memory The cognitive interview 1. Context reinstatement
2. Report everything
3. Recall Order
4. Change Perspective Strategies for Memory Improvement Mnemonics The method of loci A strategy that uses imagery. It is useful for remembering a lift of words or objects. The items to be remembered are associated with locations (loci) in a well-known place e.g your house. Organising Material Jenkins & Russel (1952) studied the recall of word lists. The word lists contained words that were highly associated (e.g knife, fork) They found that participants tended to group the associated words together in recall even though they had been seperated in the original presentation. The Peg-word technique Example: A shopping list consisting of milk, chocolate, apples and bananas
1. First, use a set of peg-words which are already stored in the memory.
2. You would need four peg words for each item on the shopping list:
one is a bun two is a shoe three is a tree
four is a door
3. Then, each item on the shopping list is linked to a number. so you imagine a bar of chocolate inside a bun, bananas poking out of a shoe, apples hanging of a tree and so on...
4. In the super market you just need to imagine the picture associated with the peg-word.