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Integumentary System

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by

Heidi Allen

on 19 September 2014

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Transcript of Integumentary System

Integumentary System
Introduction
Functions:
The Skin...
The skin is composed of:
Epidermis
Dermis
Sweat and Oil Glands
Hair and Nails
Epidermis
The epidermis is composed of up to 5 layers - each with distinct characteristics and functions
Dermis
Composed of two major regions
Appendages
of the Skin
Include:
Sebaceous Glands
Sudoriferous Glands
Hair
Nails
Aging and Homeostatic Imbalances
1. Protects deeper tissues
from mechanical damage

2. Protects deeper tissues
from chemical damage

3. Protects deeper tissues
from bacterial damage

4. Protects deeper tissues
from UV radiation

5. Protects deeper tissues
from thermal damage

6. Protects deeper tissues from dessication
7. Aids in body heat loss and retention
8. Aids in excretion of wastes
9. Synthesizes vitamin D
The skin is the largest organ in the body
Stratum Basale
Lies closest to the dermis
Receives the most nutrition
The cells are constantly undergoing mitosis
MILLIONS of new cells are produced daily
The epidermis is avascular
Most of the cells in the epidermis are keratinocytes - they produce keratin
Keratin is a tough fibrous protein which aids in the skins protective characteristics
Stratum Spinosum
The cells grow and mature and continue producing keratin
Stratum Granulosum
The keratinocytes reach maturity
They begin to flatten out due to the organelles breaking down
They secrete lipids to aid in waterproofing
Stratum Lucidum
Is not present in all skin regions
Occurs on the palms and soles
Stratum Corneum
The most superficial layer
20-30 cell layers thick
dead, flat cells - no nucleus
Filled with tough, fibrous keratin
Melanocytes
Cells that produce melanin
Genetically determined
stimulated by the sun
Protection - acts as a natural sunscreen
Secrete melanin for keratinocytes to absorb
Strong and stretchy
Houses sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles.
Papillary Layer
Upper dermal layer
Has peglike projections called dermal papillae
Papillae contain blood vessel loops
Some papillae contain pain receptors and touch receptors
On the fingertips they are the basis for fingerprints
Reticular Layer
The deepest layer of the skin
Houses blood vessels, sweat and oil glands, and deep pressure receptors
Collagen and elastic fibers are abundant
Aids in body temperature regulation
Sebaceous Glands
Found all over except the palms and soles
Ducts empty into hair follicles
Sebum (oil) is a lubricant that keeps the skin soft and prevents hair becoming brittle
Sebum is the acid mantle
Sebaceous glands are activated by hormones
Sudoriferous Glands
Eccrine glands are found all over the body
They produce sweat
Apocrine glands are found in the axillary and pubic regions
Their secretions contain sweat plus proteins and fats
Body odor is due to bacteria breaking down the secretions
Hair
Hair follicle
Root
Shaft
Matrix
Medulla
Cortex
Cuticle
Arrector pili muscle
Nails
Cuticle
Nail matrix
Lunula
Aging
As we age...
Epidermal replacement slows and skin becomes thinner
Subcutaneous fat layer diminishes, leading to an intolerance of cold
Skin becomes dry and itchy
Protein synthesis slows
Decreased elasticity and loss of subcutaneous fat leads to wrinkles
Decreased functioning melanocytes
Smoking Effects
**Smoking destroys collagen and elastic fibers**
Sun Effects
UVB rays affect the epidermis.
Responsible for sunburns
Main rays involved in skin cancer
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Least malignant and most common skin cancer.
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Arises from the keratinocytes of the stratum spinosum
Melanoma
A B C D E
Rule
Burns
Rule of nines
Smoking causes narrowing of the blood vessels in the dermis
This leads to less blood flow to the skin
The skin is deprived of oxygen and other nutrients
UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin
Major contributor to skin damage
Shorter rays = more intense
Destroys collagen and elastin fibers
Both UVA/UVB cause wrinkles, and damage Langerhans cells and melanocytes
Two main threats to life:
1. Fluid loss/dehydration
2. Infection
Need thousands of calories for tissue repair (high protein)
Tissue Repair
p. 100-101
1. The capillaries become very permeable
2. Granulation tissue forms
3. The surface epithelium regenerates
Slow growing and often does not metastasize
Shiney, dome-shaped nodule
Can be cured with a surgical excision 99% of the time

Scaley, reddened papule
Occurs most often on the scalp, ears and lower lip
Grows rapidly and metastasizes if not removed
Treatment: Surgery and immunotherapy
Melanoma?
Most deadly form of skin cancer
Metastasizes rapidly into surrounding blood and lymph vessels
Survival... about 50%
Melanoma
Full transcript