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Breast Cancer

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by

Ria Jane

on 10 December 2013

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Transcript of Breast Cancer

Effects
- Standard - Clinical
Steps To Reduce Risk of Breast Cancer
Detection & Diagnosis
Image by Tom Mooring
Breast Cancer
Standard treatments:
Clinical treatments:
High-dose chemotherapy with stem cell transplant: use of high doses of chemotherapy. Stem cells are removed from the blood or bone marrow of the patient or donor , and are frozen and stored. After the chemo is completed, the stored stem cells are infused back to the patient.

Other Effects
Sadness
Anxiety
Effect on relationships
loss of interest for sex and intimacy
Finance
FORMS OF TREATMENT
A presentation by: Ria, Mena, Soha, Rebeca, and Edna
SYMPTOMS
- lump in breast
- lump does not get smaller or go away with the menstrual cycle
- lump in armpit or above collar bones
- skin changes around breast

NO SYMPTOMS
- get a test

"
on average, 65 canadian women will be diagnosed with breast cancer every day.
"
- Canadian cancer society
TESTS USED TO DIAGNOSE BREAST CANCER
BIOPSY
- piece of the tissue is removed and tested
- done when an abnormality is found
- ONLY way to confirm if a cancer is actually present

PHYSICAL EXAM
MAMMOGRAM
- x-ray of the breast, used to look for breast disease in women who have no signs/symptoms (2 views)
- used to examine a certain area
- can help to differ between benign and cancerous tumors, and between cysts and solid masses
- breasts examined for lumps or suspicious areas
- skin of breasts will be examined
- lymph nodes in armpit and above collar bone will be examined
- can be done at home
- diagnostic mammogram: x-ray of the breast for women who have symptoms or got an abnormal screening on a mammogram
NOT WORRISOME
LIKELY TO DEVELOP
SUSPICIOUS
MRI
- magnetic resonance imaging
- used for women who have been identified to be high-risk
- used to detect and provide more detail about abnormalities found in a mammogram
BREAST ULTRASOUND
FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION
CORE NEEDLE BIOPSY
SURGICAL BIOPSY
Surgery: To remove the cancer from the breast. *effective for stage 1 or 11 cancer
- Lumpectomy: removing the tumor and a small amount of normal tissue around it
- Partial Mastectomy: removing part of the breast as well as some normal tissue around it.
- Total mastectomy: To remove the whole breast that has cancer
- Modified radical mastectomy: to remove the whole breast, lymph nodes under arm and lining of chest muscles. ( lymph nodes work as filters for harmful substances, contain immune cells)

Hormone Therapy: Removes the hormones to stop their actions ,which will help stop cancer cells from growing. * Effective in reducing the cancer risk

Sentinel Lymph node biopsy: Removal of the sentinel lymph ( the first lymph node that is likely to spread to the body from the tumor.)
* effective to prevent spread of the cancer



Radiation Therapy : Uses high energy xrays to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. * effective for early breast cancer
Chemotherapy : The use of drugs to stop the growth of cancer by killing or stopping them from dividing.
* effective any stage of cancer including 11 and 111
Causes & Risks
Breast Cancer
Mammary Cancer, Cancer of the Breast
Mammary glands: organs in female mammals that produce milk for their young
Thanks for watching!
In 2013... :
... an estimated 23,800 women will be diagnosed with breast cancer.
... an estimated 5,000 women will die from breast cancer.
... an estimated 200 men will be diagnosed with breast cancer.
... an estimated 60 men will die from breast cancer.
any uncontrollable cell growth in the organs of the breast can cause breast cancer
No known cause/trigger has been identified for breast cancer
Inherited Risk Factors
AGE
< 39
40 - 59
60 - 79
1 in 231 Chance
1 in 25 chance
1 in 15 chance
- as body ages, more likely that abnormal changes will take place in cells
GENDER
researchers believe that combination of environmental and inherited risk factors must be present for breast cancer to develop
internal risk facts: the makeup of our body, unchangeable throughout life
external risk factors: lifestyle, things that affect us throughout life, can be changed
Environmental Risk Factors
GENETICS
MENSTRUAL PERIODS
OBESITY
ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION
more research being done to identify definite causes
1.Exercise Regularly
As little as 75 to 150 minutes of brisk walking each week has been shown to lower risk of breast cancer.
2. Limit Alcohol
Women who have 2 or more alcoholic drinks a day have about 1 ½ times the risk of breast cancer compared to women who don’t drink at all.
Follow the American Cancer Society’s recommendation of no more than 1 drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men
3.Limit dose and duration of hormone therapy
Combination hormone therapy (taking estrogen or progesterone for more than three to five years increases the risk of breast cancer
4.Control Your Weight
Being overweight or obese increases breast cancer risk. This is especially true after menopause and for women who gain weight as adults.
- cells in body have had more chances to make mistakes while dividing
- men can develop breast cancer, but it is 100x more common in women
23 800
200
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119
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1
RADIATION
... due to hormone levels in a woman's body vs a man's body
Estrogen levels:
- estrogen plays a part in:
- stimulating breast cell division
- affecting other hormones which play a part in stimulating breast cell division
- working during the critical periods of breast growth and development
high estrogen levels
loss of "balance" and control in breast cell division
malignant tumor formed
benign tumor formed
breast cancer
- about 5 to 10 % of breast cancer cases thought to be hereditary
- most common causes: mutations in
BRca1
and
- these genes, when normal, control cell growth and death and make proteins that keep cells from growing abnormally
- when mutated or altered, these genes (if in the breast) can cause breast cancer
genes
brca2
- if a girl starts her period early (under 12 years old)
- if a woman hits menopause late (after 55 years old)
or
then
- body is exposed to estrogen and progesterone for a long, uninterrupted period of time
- adipose (fat) tissues produce estrogen
- by being obese and having too much adipose tissues, it can increase estrogen levels which could then lead to cancer
- women who have one drink a day increase their risk of breast cancer very slightly
compared to non-drinkers...:
- women who have 2 to 5 drinks daily increase their risk by 1.5x
- drinking alcohol can reduce levels of folic acid
folic acid: copies and repairs DNA. Found in foods such as okra, asparagus, spinach, avocado, etc.
- can result in errors while replicating DNA in interphase stage of cell division
- those errors can possibly lead to cells becoming cancerous
- generally, larger amounts of radiation to the chest at a younger age increases the risk of breast cancer
Hair loss from chemotherapy
weight gain
physical changes to your body from surgery
Problems with breast prostheses
Change of appetite
fatigue
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness
Mouth soreness
Bleeding
Diarrhea
Full transcript