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Timeline of Human Trafficking

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Chanita Stephenson

on 13 February 2014

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Transcript of Timeline of Human Trafficking

HEADLINES.
who is the perpetrator?
History..
Child Sex

From 2009-2010 3000 young people accessed services because they had been affected by sexual exploitation.

Child trafficking is the recruitment and movement of children for the purpose of exploitation. ( NSPCC, 2013)
Operation retriever.

The EU Directive strengthens the government responses and includes responsibilities areas such as (Airecentre.org, 2014):
Protecting both potential and existing victims of trafficking
Investigation and Prosecution
Non-Prosecution of the victim
A punishable offence with minimal of 5 years imprisonment
Jurisprudence
Introduction..
"What is sex trafficking?"
"It doesn't happen in this city"
"It only happens in the movies"
"It only happens in other countries"
Oppressive practice
“...the solicitor asked me to plead guilty, I pleaded guilty. I don’t know what guilty means”

“ They were treated with suspicion and prejudice...resulted in a lack of trust between the children and those responsible for their care.”

(the Children Society.com)
SOCIAL VALUES.
Upholding and promoting human dignity and well-being
Respecting the right to self- determination
Treating each person as a whole
Working in solidarity
Challenging unjust policies and practices




1562 - the British joined in on the slave trade in Africa.

“ Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 in the UK”.

However human trafficking of a different nature started in 1904.

1904 - the white slave traffic started. European women who were seeking to find jobs abroad but White slavery referred to forcing or deceiving a white woman or girl into prostitution

1927 - woman and children of both genders were been trafficked were engaged in prostitution.
Ref: According to http://www.eden.rutgers.edu/~yongpatr/425/final/timeline.htm



Trafficking.
‘Taboo issue in this county. It was little spoken about, little appreciated, little acknowledged or dealt with.’ (Loughton, T. 2012,).
"There are only a few cases of sex trafficking"
“Home Office has awarded more than £70,000 in grants to the NSPCC”
training will increase practitioners knowledge on identifying victims
inconsistency of policy implementations

Indicators.
Child going missing / Truancy
Secretive
Unexplained money/presents
Experimenting drugs/alcohol
Grooming / Associating with older males (not in normal networks)
Significantly older boyfriend
Social activities with no plausible explanation
Seen entering or leaving vehicles with unknown adults
Evidence of physical / sexual assault (STD’s)
Low self image / self harm / eating disorder

trafficked children are to gain a personal advocate.
the safety of the child is paramount
“This funding will help us train professionals who form the crucial first line defence against this dreadful crime.”
“An abuse of a child’s vulnerability by a person’s position of power or trust, exploiting that position to obtain sexual services in exchange for some form of favour such as alcohol, drugs, attention or gifts” Engage Team, Blackburn
‘The Inquiry into Child Sexual Exploitation in Gangs and Groups (CSEGG) conducted by the Children's Commissioner for England identified 16,500 children as being at high risk of child sexual exploitation April 2010-March 2011’
‘The Metropolitan Police has picked up only 36 of London's 389 identified cases of human trafficking this year’

Impact of social work..
1949 - The UN passed the ‘Suppression of the Traffic in persons and the exploitation of the prostitution of others’ the convention was the first to be ‘legally binding’

2000 - Trafficking in person’s was first defined, in the ‘Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children’.

2003 - The UK introduced ‘The sexual offences act’.

2007 - The UK Government published a guidance document called ‘Safeguarding children who may have been trafficked’.

2008 - The UK government ratified the council of Europe convention on ‘action against human trafficking in human beings’.




2011 - The Government released their plans to tackle human trafficking.


'we want to try and raise awareness and put more procedures in place to stop this from happening'
(BBC News,2013)
‘Low risks (community is unaware…government and community institutions are not trained…ineffective laws…law enforcements does not investigate and prosecute).
High profits (willing to buy…creates a market…makes it profitable).’ (Polaris Project. 2014)
UCL Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science.
‘Culture of silence…impeded investigations’
(Davis and McVeigh, 2011)

‘Why doesn’t the child escape?
Whose responsibility is it?
Are all child victims…seeking asylum?’
(ECPAT UK, 2013)

Identifying and developing strengths
However during late 2010 early 2011 the coalition government argued that the UK did not need to sign up to the EU Directive with the prime minister David Cameron saying in 2010 it “does not go an further than the law that we have already passed. We have put everything that is in the directive in place (Publications.parliament.uk, 2014)”. However after a petition was formed with a total of 49,192 signatures (Blog.38degrees.org.uk, 2014) the government agreed to opt in.
EU DIRECTIVE
In March 2011 the UK opted in to the European Directive on preventing and combating trafficking in Human beings and protecting its victims.
I'm as free as a bird
But one year ago
I was like a bird in a cage
Screaming 'let me out
I want to be free from this life'.
But I thought I was trapped
But all I had to do was sing
And people would start noticing me
And then someone noticed me and let me
Out of my cage.
Now im free as a bird
And I'm not trapped in that life anymore
You can do it as well
It's true you know.
(Denise, aged 17, Street Matters 2000)
Trapped.
THINK!..
The Unthinkable.
Thank-you for listening.
''oxford child sex trafficking probe widens as number of 'victims' doubles to 50 girls. some as young as 11'

'Gaps in data hindering child trafficking fight'
'Children in human trafficking probe.'
'police explore international links for convicted child sex offender 'Ian Watkins'
'12% rise in children at risk of human trafficking for exploitation'
'Police swoop on paedophile gang accused of modern-day slavery of girls in care aged 11 'bought and sold' for sex'
'Human trafficking crackdown'
'UK Sex Trafficking: Amnesty welcomes Birmingham police crackdown, but UK must do more to protect victims'
References
2011 – This was updated to include the National Referral Mechanism (NRM) introduced in 2009.
ACGC. Available at: http://www.acgc.ca/09/images/file/resources/Youth%20Action%20Resources/Oppression%20and%20Privilege%20Framework.pdf [Accessed: 05/10/2013].
Airecentre.org. 2014. Understanding the New EU Trafficking Directive - 29th May 2013 · The AIRE Centre. [online] Available at: http://www.airecentre.org/pages/understanding-the-new-eu-trafficking-directive-29th-may-2013.html [Accessed: 16 Jan 2014].
BBC (2013) Met picked up 9% of human trafficking victims, report says Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-24512447 (Accessed 4th January 2014)
Booth. R. (2014). The Guardian. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/society/2014/jan/26/child-trafficking-victims-personal-advocates-home-office-trial [Accessed: 04/02/2014].
Care. (2013). Available at: http://www.care.org.uk/news/new-report-calling-for-child-trafficking-guardians-welcomed [Accessed: 05/10/2013].
Community Care. (2012). Community Care. Available at: http://www.communitycare.co.uk/2012/10/16/how-the-latest-research-into-child-trafficking-in-the-uk-should-inform-social-work-practice/#.UpXsg8SdbVs [Accessed: 13/10/2013].
CPS. Human Trafficking and Smuggling. Available at: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/h_to_k/human_trafficking_and_smuggling/#a02 [Accessed: 04/02/2014].
CPS. Prostitution and Exploitation of Prostitution. Available at: http://www.cps.gov.uk/legal/p_to_r/prostitution_and_exploitation_of_prostitution/#a06 [Accessed: 04/02/2014]
BBC News. 2013. Hotels briefed on human trafficking. [online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-wiltshire-24653947 [Accessed: 18 Nov 2013]
Davis, C and McVeigh,K. (2011). Child Sex Trafficking Study Sparks Exaggerated Racial Stereotyping. The Guardian. (ONLINE). Available from www.theguardian.com/law/2011/jan/06/child-sex-trafficking-raciel-stereotyping. (Accessed on the 18th November 2013).
ECPAT UK. (2013). Protecting Children Everywhere. (ONLINE). Available from www.ecpat.org.uk/content/faqs-child-trafficking. (Accessed on the 29th October 2013).
ECPAT UK (2013) Protecting children everywhere .Available at: http://www.ecpat.org.uk/content/guidance-professionals-working-children-who-may-have-been-trafficked (Accessed: 16 December 2013)
Great Britain. Department for education (2011) Safeguarding children who may have been trafficked.[Online] Available at: http://www.ecpat.org.uk/sites/default/files/safeguarding_children_who_may_have_been_trafficked_update_2011.pdf (Accessed:16 December 2013)
Gregg. L. (2013). The Children’s Society. Available at: http://www.childrenssociety.org.uk/news-views/our-blog/reviewing-support-trafficked-children [Accessed: 06/10/2013].
Kane, J. (1998) Sold for Sex. Hants. Ashgate Publishing Limited
Loughton, T. (2012). Tim Loughton at the Safe and Sound National Conference. (ONLINE). Available from www.gov.uk/government/speeches/tim-loughton-at-the-safe-and-sound-conference. (Accessed on the 18th November 2013).
McGregor. K. (2013). Community Care. Available at: http://www.communitycare.co.uk/2013/01/22/social-workers-and-students-to-be-trained-on-human-trafficking/#.UpXsLcSdbVs [Accessed: 13/10/2013].
NSPCC (2013) NSPCC cruelty to children must stop. FULL STOP. Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/resourcesforprofessionals/childtrafficking/child-trafficking-statistics_wda96895.html (Accessed: 16 December 2013)

NSPCC (2013) Child sexual exploitation – introduction Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/resourcesforprofessionals/sexualabuse/cse-introduction_wda97566.html (Accessed: 4th January 2014)
NSPCC (2014) Child sexual exploitation Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/resourcesforprofessionals/sexualabuse/cse-homepage_wda97456.html (Accessed 4th January 2014
Parish. M (2009). Social Work Perspectives of Human Behaviour. England: McGraw-Hill Education
Pearce. J. (2009). Young People and Sexual Exploitation: 'It's Not Hidden, You Just Aren't Looking'. Oxon: Routledge.
Polaris Project. (2014). Why Trafficking exists. Available from www.polarisproject.org/human-trafficking/overview/why-trafficking-exists. (Accessed on the 30th November 2013).
Politics.co.uk. Prostitution. Available at: http://www.politics.co.uk/reference/prostitution [Accessed: 04/02/2014].
Publications.parliament.uk. 2014. House of Commons Hansard Debates for 15 Sep 2010 (pt 0001). [online] Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201011/cmhansrd/cm100915/debtext/100915-0001.htm [Accessed: 16 Jan 2014].
UNODC United Nation on drugs and crime (2013)addressing trafficking in persons since 1949.Available at: http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/2010/addressing-trafficking-in-persons-since-1949.html (accessed: 16 December 2013)
UK Government (2013)Legislation.gov.uk. Available at:http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2003/42/part/1/crossheading/trafficking (Accessed: 16 December 2013)
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