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Neuroscience

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Chemistry Neuroscience

on 28 October 2014

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Transcript of Neuroscience

Neuroscience
What is Neuroscience?

Neuroscience is a subcategory of science that deals with the structure and function of the nervous system and the brain.
Important people who contributed to Neuroscience
Thomas Willis (1621-1675)
Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934)
Otto Loewi (1873-1961)
Karl Lashley (1890-1958)
Wilder Penfield (1891-1976)
Rodger Sperry (1913-1994)
David Hunter Hubel (1926-2013)
Thomas Willis
A physician
Wrote
Cerebri Anatome
Disagreed with René Descartes' idea that only humans could speak rationally, he thought animals could too
Coined the words lobe, hemisphere, pyramid, peduncle, and corpus striatum
Coined the term neurology in 1664
He originally believed that the cerebellum was associated with memory, but he later changed his idea to the modern concept that memory is used for words and ideas and located in the outer
bank of the cerebral hemisphere
He thought that the white matter in the brain
was a path to dispense spirits from/
towards the cortex
Karl Lashley
Wilder Penfield
Neurologist
He figured out that patients experienced an "aura" or a warning that something is about to happen
He was the first neurosurgeon in Montreal
He treated patients with epilepsy
Penfield also developed a map of the brain
He was considered to be the "Greatest living Canadian"
He devoted much of his time to the mystery of the brain
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Neuroscience
by Ahmadu, Annalise, Gaines, and Lenore
A Brief Timeline of important events:
Santiago Ramón y Cajal got rid of the idea of nerve nets
Nerve nets are a continuous network of neurons that conducts impulses everywhere
In 1889, he said that each nerve cell seemed to be an independent unit
Went to a conference and proposed the idea of nerve cells being independent units
Tried to improve Golgi's silver staining technique by cutting thicker sections from the subjects, and he stained brain sections of animals
Otto Loewi
Rodger Sperry
Sperry experimented on cats if the corpus collasum is cut, then would the different hemispheres be able to communicate?
They also severed the optic chiasm
By severing hemispheres and the optic chiasm, each eye could send info only to the side of the brain connected to that eye- published findings in 1953
Sperry discovered that the brains have separated tasks and can function without the connection of the corpus collasum
David Hunter Hubel
American psychologist
He studied vertebrae behavior then studied animal behavior with John Watson
Was the assistant professor of psychology in 1920 at the University of Minnesota (professor in 1924)
Created the ideas of mass action and equipotentiality
Mass action are certain types of learning are done in cerebral cortex (contrary to view that psychological functions are done in one specific place on the cortex
Equipotentiality is when some parts of a system (usually concerning sensory systems) will cover for damaged parts
He discovered how nerve cells analyze light rays that hit our retinas
Said that the cortex is arranged in vertical columns of cells
Won the Nobel Prize for discoveries about the neural activity that occurs in parts of the animal brain in reaction to visual stimuli
They found neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) that seemed to process very detailed information about what an animal observes in the outside world
1564: Giulo Cesare Aranzi names the
hippocampus
1583: Felix Platter says that images are formed in the retina
1764: Domencio Cotugno describes the cerebrospinal fluid and its production in brain ventricles
1852: A. Kolliker says motor nerves originate in neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal chord
1853: William Carpenter claims that the "sensory ganglion" (thalamus) is where consciousness is located
1855: Bartolomeo Panizza discovers that the optical lobe is vital for functioning vision
1864: John Hughlings Jackson writes about loss of speech after brain damage
1909: Harvey Cushing was the first person to electrically stimulate the sensory cortex
1911: Eugen Bleuler names the disorder
schizophrenia
1947: Joachim Bodamer names "face blindness" as prosopagnosia
1953: Eugene Aserinski and Nathaniel Kleitman describe REM during sleep
Otto Loewi

had insomnia, and one night he woke up with desire to experiment about the vagus nerves (each of the tenth pair of cranial nerves)
Vagus nerves restrain the heart by releasing a chemical that may diffuse into a solution once it makes contact with the heart
He discovered that stimulated vagus nerves slow movement and stimulating accelerator nerves speeds up movement
Loewi understood now how the nerve impulse can lead to inhibition and he had evidence that a chemical intermediary is involved
Paradigm Shifts
Aristotle believed that the heart was the main center for thought and intelligence
Ancient egyptians took the brain out of a person's body through the nostrils and threw it away and put organs preserved in jars
Ancient Egyptians were the first to right down ideas about the anatomy of the brain
Now we can use brain imaging technologies like Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic residence imaging used to look at what the brain does and how it functions, how drugs affect the nervous system
Technology advancements contributes to the new discoveries of the brain
Religion and politics are a main part of the reluctance to accept new scientific discoveries, leading to it affecting the way scientists function
The ripe time is referred to as the period of time where there was less resistance to accept new ideas mainly because of cultural changes, technological advancements, and the advancement in basic other forms of science
Serendipity
The ancient greeks noticed that brain damage can cause aphasia
In 1836, Marc Dax labeled a group of patients who couldn't speak correctly- he reported that they all had damage to the left side of the brain
In 1861, Paul Broca had a patient that could only say the word "tan" and was therefore called Tan
When Tan died, Broca examined the brain and there was damage to the left frontal cortex concluding that that part of the brain is associated with speech
Phineas Gage was a railroad foreman and while working, an iron rod shot all the way through his skull
After this his personality completely changed
They discovered this was from the damage to the frontal lobe
Over 150 years later, there is evidence suggesting that the prefrontal cortex is the part involved with moral behavior
Citations for photos:
http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/hst/scientific-identity/fullsize/SIL14-W004-01a.jpg

http://instituciones.sld.cu/csrc/files/2012/02/Santiago.Ramón.y.Cajal_.png

http://www.nndb.com/people/507/000128123/otto-loewi.jpg

http://saintleoinkblot.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/karl-lashley-2.jpg

http://apps.mni.mcgill.ca/MNI75/images/timecapsule/Penfield2.jpg

http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1981/hubel_postcard.jpg

http://a66c7b.medialib.glogster.com/media/aa/aa3fbbab5c0cb931f2485e976509b7a46de4f81dff6cbeae98120be18488e299/roger-sperry.jpg
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