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The World of Chemistry

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Joe Christopher

on 22 July 2015

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Transcript of The World of Chemistry

The World of Chemistry

What is chemistry?
the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules
Chemical Properties and Changes
How matter changes as a result of contact with other matter or the influence of energy
Chemical Reactions
Measurement
Qualitative and Quantitative
Units
Standard SI Base Units
Density
Ratio of mass to volume-
m
/V
Important physical property - used to identify material
Temperature dependent
Intensive vs. extensive
Pure Substances
Composition does not change from one sample to another
Matter
Matter -anything that has mass and occupies space
Antoine Lavoisier
Temperature
Average Kinetic Energy
Thermal Energy Flow
Alchemy
– precursor to modern Chemistry – conversion of base metals into noble metals
Compound
- Chemical combination of elements that can be broken down to those elements
Pure Substance
Mixtures
Elements
Atoms
Smallest particle of an element that has the chemical properties of element
Periodic Table
Caffeine
Water
Building blocks of Matter
Cannot be broken down by chemical reaction
Molecule
Smallest unit of a compound that retains the chemical characteristics of the compound
Mixtures
Combination of two or more pure substances in which the composition may vary from one sample to another
Heterogeneous
Does not have a uniform composition throughout
Homogeneous
Has a uniform composition throughout
States of
Matter
3 States of Mater
Liquid
No Fixed Shape
Solid
Crystalline & Amorphous
Gas
Expand to fill container
Compressible
Plasma ?
Physical Properties and Changes
Changed, observed or measured without changing composition.
Melting & boiling point
Odor
Color
Temperature
Density
Properties
Phase Changes
melting/freezing
Vaporization
Condensation
Sublimation
Dissolving to make a solution
Changes
Energy
Both physical and chemical changes, result in matter either gaining or releasing energy
Kinetic
Thermal (motion)
temperature
Potential
Gravitational
Electrical (charges)
Chemical (Bonds)
move to lower PE
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy is neither created nor destroyed. The total amount of energy in the universe is constant.
It may change forms or flow from one object to another.
High Potential Energy Systems are less Stable
Systems with high potential energy have a tendency to change in a way that lowers their potential energy
Falling objects
Chemical reactions (combustion)
Metric System
Scales
Kelvin - absolute
Celsius
Fahrenheit
Conversion
Derived Units - Volume and Density
Vol. - a cubic length
units?
Significant figures
all certain + 1 uncertain
Estimating in measurements
Accuracy vs. Precision
Reliability
Number of digits indicates certainty, uncertainty in last reported digit, +/- 1
A piece of copper has a mass of 57.54 g. It is 9.36 cm long, 7.23 cm wide, and 0.95 mm thick. Calculate density.
Accuracy and Precision
Random error
Systematic error
4.57 mL
Topic You Need to Know But not Lecturing Over (parts of section 1.6, 1.7, 1.8 and Appendix 1)
Scientific Notation
Significant figures
counting
using in calculations
Metric Unit conversion
Conversion of Units
Rounding
Problem Solving/Dimensional Analysis

Changes in Matter
Energy
Full transcript