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Physiological Bases of Human Behavior

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Desiderio IV Camitan

on 8 September 2016

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Transcript of Physiological Bases of Human Behavior

Physiological Bases of Human Behavior
1. The biological study of the functions of living organisms and their parts.
2. All the functions of a living organism or any of its parts.
Physiology
Nervous Tissue
Your nervous system is a living tissue composed of cells.
Two types of cell in nervous system
1. Glia and Neurons
2. Nerve Cell
Neurons
Cells that receive, integrate and transmit information.
There are approximately trillions of neurons throughout your body which is involved in the control of body activities and behavior
cell body
dendrites
axons
myelin sheath
contains the nucleus which provides nourishment and insulation
receive signals from the neighboring neuron and carry them to the cell body
carries message to the other neurons
fatty tissue and proteins surrounding the axons
prevents interference from electrical signals generated in adjacent axons
Kinds of neurons according to speed
1. fast neurons (110mps)
2. slow neurons (0.5mps)
Kinds of neurons according to basic function
1. Sensory (afferent neurons)
2. Motor (efferent neurons)
3. Association/inter-neurons
conveys information from the body's sense organs to the brain and spinal cord.
carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord to the organs, the muscle the glands
connects the neurons together and combine the activities of the sensory and motor neurons
Glia
Non neural cells surrounding the neurons
holds neurons in place
The synapse
the gap between neurons
neurons that send a signal across the gap is called pre-synaptic neuron and the neuron that receives the signal is called post-synaptic neuron
Synapse
Neurotransmitter
chemicals that carry messages across the synapse
The Nervous System
The system of cells, tissues, and organs that regulates the body's responses to internal and external stimuli.
Divisionsof the Nervous System
1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Central Nervous System
Made up of nerves outside the brain and the spinal cord
The brain and the spinal cord
Divisions of the PNS
1. somatic nervous system
2. autonomic nervous system
Reacts to the outside world
Concerned with parts of the body that keeps us alive - the heart, blood vessels, glands and other organs
Divisions of the ANS
1. sympathetic nervous system
2. parasympathetic nervous system
called the "fight or flight system"
allows humans and animals to deal with different kinds of emotions
anger (fight), fear (flight)
"eat-drink-rest system"
restores the body to normal functioning after a stressful situation ends.
slows down the heart and breathing, constricts the pupils and reactivates digestion and excretion
The core of the nervous system
Takes information from our senses, processes it makes decision and sends commands to the rest of the body
Major parts of the brain
hind brain
mid brain
forebrain
controls some sensitive body function such as breathing, heartbeat, blood pressure and body posture
acts as neurotransmitter of motor information, coordinating muscles and integrating movement between right and left part of the body
motor coordination
analysis and coordination
The Midbrain
relays information between the brain and the eyes and ears.
Forebrain
Largest part of the brain, which has left and right side called hemispheres.
Two divisions of the forebrain
1. cerebral cortex (new brain)
2. limbic system (old brain)
relatively recent evolution
consist of of a mass of deeply-folded and convoluted tissue
if flatten out, it will cover an area more than two feet
highest region of the forebrain
highest mental functions take place
primitive brain, has same structure found in the animal brain
emotions, motivation and learning
involved with personality, emotions and motor behaviors
perception and memory experiences, spatial location, attention and motor control
involved in hearing, language processing and memory
motor areas
sensory areas
association areas
regulates blood temperature, thirst, hunger, sleeping, sexual activities and emotions.
Thalamus
relay information about the senses
formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for the location of objects
plays a major role in evaluating the emotional significance of stimulus and facial expressions
Full transcript