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Eukaryotic Algal Cell (Algae)

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Jade Ledet

on 13 September 2012

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Transcript of Eukaryotic Algal Cell (Algae)

Algae is a plant-like structure without roots, a stem or leaves but have simple reproductive structures. Algae can be found worldwide in seas, freshwater, and wastewater. Eukaryotic Algal Cell (Algae) All Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells have a plasma membrane. Since this Algal cell is eukaryotic, then it falls under this description. The plasma membrane is a permeable passgae way for specific components to come in and out of cell. All algal cells are surrounded by a cell wall that are rich in carbohydrates. Algal cell walls are mostly made up of cellulose but can contain pectin which basically gives the algea a slimy feel. The cytoplasm of a eukaryotic algal cell is the region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. The cytoplasm can also be known as cytosol. This polar substance acts as a solvent for proteins and compounds, transports substances around the cell and it also acts as a storage for substances indispensable to life. The ribosomes in algae are the same ribosomes that are in any other eukaryotic cell. They are attached to the endoplasmic reticulum and consist of rRNA and proteins. The rough ER of algal cells, located in the cells cytoplasm, is covered with ribosomes. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae. The golgi apparatus is an important organelle found in most eukayotic cells such as protists, animals and plants This organelle serves as a molecular sorting station directing proteins and carbohydrates to their correct locating in the cell. Since Algae are aquatic, they have flagella and cillia which form a ring around an inner central pair of microtubules that arise from a plate near the cell surface. These two organelles are simply used to allow the cel to mover around the cell. Chloroplast in the algal cells helps to conduct photosynthesis. It contains chlorophyll and other photosynthetic pigments as well as electron transport chains. Lysosomes are synthesized by the ER and the golgi complex. This organelles provides digestive enzymes. Plasmodesmata are narrow channels located in narrow areas of cell walls called primary pit fields. They allow the movement of water, nutrients, and other molecules. The mitochondria in algal (eukaryotic) cells
are double-membrane-bounded rod like structures found in the cytoplasm. This organelle serves as an energy source for the cell. Centrioles do not exist in algal cells or fungi cells. They are usually present in animal cells. Algae cells have peroxisomes that are membrane bounded organelles which contains a wide variety of enzymes that catalyze a variety of metabolic reactions. Eukaryotic algal cells contain three double-membrane-bound organelles and one of these is the nucleus. In most algal cells, there is only a single nucleus which holds most of the DNA. Inside of the nucleus is a structure known as the nucleolus. This structure produces ribosomes that eventually move out of the nucleus and on the rough ER for protein synthesis. The smooth ER is the ER without ribosomes but contains enzymes for lipid biosynthesis especially synthesis of phospholipids and steroids. The smooth ER transfers molecules produced in the rough ER to the golgi apparatus. The cytoskeleton in the cell gives it its shape, allows cell movement, cell division, and the movement of organelles within the cell and endocytosis. Gap junctions do not exist in algal cells. Capsules do not exist in algal eukaryotic cells. Only in prokaryotic cells.
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