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Project Management and the Inception Phase

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kristel de vera

on 2 March 2016

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Transcript of Project Management and the Inception Phase

Project Success Factors
The Role of Project Manager
Identify Project Risks and Confirm Project Feasibility
Business Modeling and the Inception Phase
Project Management Knowledge Areas
A project is a planned undertaking with the beginning and an end that produces a predetermined result or product and is usually constrained by a schedule and resources.
Learning Objectives
Explain the elements of project management and the responsibilities of a project manager
Describe how the UP disciplines of business modeling and environment relate to the inception phase
Describe the project management activities that are done during the inception phase
Develop a project schedule using a work breakdown structure (WBS) and PERT and Gantt charts
Use Microsoft Project to build the project schedule
Perform a risk analysis of potential project risks
Develop a cost/benefit analysis using net present value calculations
List the key deliverables and activities of the end of the inception phase
Discuss three techniques for monitoring and controlling system development project

Chapter Outline
Project Management
The Unified Process and the Inception Phase
Completing the Inception Phase
Project Monitoring and Control

The Unified Process
and the
Inception Phase

Completing the
Inception Phase

Project Monitoring
and Control

What is a project?
is directing and organizing other people
to achieve the planned result within a predetermined schedule and budget.
is a set of processes used to plan the project and then monitor and control it.

Reasons that projects fail or do not fulfill desired objectives:

Incomplete or changing system requirements
Limited user involvement
Lack of executive support
Lack of technical support
Poor project planning
Unclear objectives
Lack of required resources

Reasons for project success:

Clear system requirement definitions
Substantial user involvement
Support from upper management
Thorough and detailed project plans
Realistic work schedules and milestones

How can we improve the project success rate?
Incorporate good principles of project management into their projects
Adopt a standard development methodology
Pay particular attention to the factors that influence project success

Internal Responsibilities
External Responsibilities

1. Identify project tasks and build a work breakdown structure
2. Develop the project schedule
3. Recruit and train team members
4. Assign team members to task
5. Coordinate activities of team members and subteams
6. Assess project risk
7. Monitor and control project deliverables and milestones
8. Verify the quality of project deliverables


1. Report project status and progress
2. Established the working relationship with those providing the system requirements
3. Wok with the client (the project’s sponsor) and other stakeholders
4. Identify resource needs and obtain resources

Various Roles of Project Managers
Project Management Institute (PMI)
Is professional organization that promotes project management, primarily within the United States but also throughout the world
Develops a body of knowledge (BOK) for project management referred to as PMBOK which is widely accepted foundation of information that every project manager should know

PMBOK Nine (9) Areas of Knowledge
1. Project Scope Management
2. Project Time Management
3. Project Cost Management
4. Project Quality Management
5. Project Human Resource Management
6. Project Communications Management
7. Project Risk Management
8. Project Procurement Management
9. Project Integration Management

Project Management Within the Unified Process
Project management is a support business discipline
Project management tasks prominent at inception

1. Identify the business need for the project
2. Establish the vision for the solution
3. Identify scope of the new system and the project
4. Develop preliminary schedules and cost estimates
5. Develop the business case for the project

Inception phase of the UP has (5) objectives
Unified Process
Unified Software Development Process
a popular iterative and incremental software development process framework
What is business modeling
Business modeling includes all the activities that help the system developer understand the business environment that new system will support.
Business Modeling Activities
Understanding the business environment
Creating the system vision
Creating business models

Understand the business environment
- Describe the problem or need
- Consider needed interfaces to other systems
- Evaluate existing architecture and system constraints or standards
- Analyze the various system stakeholders

Create the system vision
- Generate a list of primary business benefits
- Create a list of system objectives
- Develop a list of system capabilities

Create business models
- Identify business events
- Model business processes and workflows
- Define information and data flow models

Understanding Business Environment
Describe the problem or need
Consider needed interferences to other systems
Evaluate existing architecture and system constraints or standards
Analyze the various system stakeholders
Three categories of stakeholders should be considered
1. Users
are the people who will actually be using the system to do their work
both internal and external
2. Sponsors
the person or group who has authorized and funded a development project, also called
also known as projects' clients
3. Supports Staff
- includes the people who will have responsibility for the system after it goes into operation, in other words, the system support people such as network and operating environment technicians and other operations staff.

Internal users
– are employees inside the company who will use the system to do their work
Kinds of Internal users:
- Some need access to all system functions to perform the various business processes
- Others, especially middle and upper managers, may only use the system to gather general information or to receive reports from it.
External users
– people outside the the company who use the system, such as Internet customers or approved suppliers

Creating the Vision
Make a list of business benefits
Project Manager should remember two key points when identifying business benefits:

1. The benefits directly affect the sponsor, not the development team.

analyzing the benefits and determining the major objectives of the system
System Capabilities
a fairly short, high-level list of functions that the system must contain to achieve the objectives of the project and produce the defined benefits
Project Charter
a set of documents that define the need, objective, benefits, and scope of the new system
Creating Business Models
Areas that require business models:
Business Events
Business Processes
Information Repositories and Flows
and the
Inception Phase
Select and configure the development tools

Tailor the UP development process

Provide technical support services
Sample Criteria for Defining Rigor of Project Controls
Project Management and the Inception Phase
Activities involved in initiating and planning the project
Finalize the system and project scope

Develop the project and iteration schedules
Develop the work breakdown structure (WBS), including intermediate deliverables
Develop the schedule
Develop resource requirements and the staffing plan

Identify project risk and confirm project feasibility
Assess the risks to the project feasibility
Determine the organizational/cultural feasibility
Evaluate the technological feasibility
Determine the schedule feasibility
Assess the resource feasibility
Determine the economic feasibility (cost/benefit analysis)

Finalizing the
System and Project Scope
Scope Creep
the addition of new functions to the scope of a system that cause the project to increase in size
Essential use case model
a model that is often built during the inception phase to define the most critical functions the system ust perform to respond to a business event.
Look up item availability
Create new order
Update order
Ship an order
Return an item
Back-order an item
Create new customer
Maintain customer account
Create a new catalog
Update catalog
Create special promotion
Send promotion materials
Sample Essential Use Case List for RMO
Developing the Project and Iteration Schedule
Tasks involved in scheduling:

Develop the work breakdown structure (WBS), including intermediate deliverables
Develop the schedule
Develop resource requirements and staffing plan
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
What is the
work breakdown structure (WBS)
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
the hierarchy of phases, activities, and tasks of a project
one method to estimate and schedule the tasks of a project
Four most effective techniques for identifying the tasks of the WBS:
Identifying major activities first and then listing internal tasks
Listing all the tasks you can think of and organize them later
Using a standard template of tasks for projects that are fairy standard
Finding a similar, or analogous, project that is finished and copying its tasks

Guidelines to determine how detailed should the individual task be:
1. There should be a way to recognize when the task is complete.

2. The definition of task should be clear enough so that someone can estimate the effort required to complete it.

3. As a general rule for software projects, the effort should task from 2 to 10 working days.

Developing the Schedule
Entering the WBS into MS Project
Two types of charts are used to show a project schedule:
PERT/CPM chart
Gantt Chart
a chart for scheduling a project based on individual tasks or activities and their dependencies
Gantt Chart
a bar chart that represents the tasks and activities of the project schedule and tracks the current date and tasks completed
Critical Path
a sequence f tasks that cannot be delayed without causing the project to be completed
Slack Time, or Float
a precise point on the project schedule that indicates a specific completion point
the amount of time any task can be delayed without having a negative impact on the completion date of the project
Develop the resource requirements
and the staffing plan
Feasibility Analysis
is an activity that verifies whether a project may be started and successfully completed
Activities in conforming a project's feasibility
Assess the risk to the project (Risk Management
Determine the organizational/cultural feasibility
Evaluate technological feasibility
Assess the resource feasibility
Determine the economic feasibility (cost/benefit analysis)

Assessing the Risk to the Project
Risk Management
is the project management area that is forward-looking and tries to identify potential trouble spots that may be jeopardize the success of the project
Simplified Risk Analysis
Determine the Organization/Cultural Feasibility
• A low level of computer competency among employees
• Substantial computer phobia
• A perceived loss of control by staff or management
• Potential shifting of political and organizational power due to the new system
• Fear of change of job responsibilities
• Fear of loss of employment due to increased automation
• Reversal of long standing work procedures

Evaluating the Technological Feasibility
Generally, a new system bring new technology into the company. At times, the new system stretches the state of the art technology. Other projects utilize existing technology but combine it into new, untested configurations. Finally, even existing technology can pose challenges if there is lack of expertise within the company. The solution to technological risks include providing additional training, hiring consultants, or hiring more experience employees.
Determining the Schedule Feasibility
The development of a project schedule always involves high risk.
Every schedule requires the project management team to make many assumption and estimates without adequate information.
Assessing the Resource Feasibility
The project management team must assess the availability of resources for the project. The primary resources consists of the members of the team. Development projects require the involvement of systems analysis, system technicians, and users.Other resources required for a successful project include adequate computer resources, physical facilities, and support staff.

Determining the economic feasibility
(cost/benefit analysis)
The test for economic feasibility consists of two question:
1. Is the anticipated value of the benefits greater than projected cost of development?
2. Does the organization have adequate cash flow to fund the project during the development period?

Cost/Benefit Analysis
is a comparison of the costs of development versus the anticipated financial benefits of the new system.
Developing a cost/benefits analysis is a three-step process:
1. The first step is to estimate the anticipated development and operational costs.
2. The second step is to estimate the anticipated financial benefits.
3. The third step, the cost/benefit analysis, is calculated based on the detailed estimates of cost and benefits.

Project cost fall into the following categories:
• Salaries and wages
• Equipment and installation
• Software and license
• Consulting fees and payments to third parties
• Training
• Facilities
• Utilities and tools
• Support staff
• Travel and miscellaneous

The Major Categories of Cost that might be Allocated to the Operation of a New System:
• Connectivity
• Equipment maintenance
• Cost to upgrade software licenses
• Computer operation
• Programming support
• Amortization of equipment
• Training and ongoing assistance (the help desk)
• Supplies
Benefits usually come from two major source decrease cost and increased revenue. Cost savings or decrease in expense come from increased efficiency in company operations. Areas in which to look for reduced cost include the following:
• Reducing staff by automating manual functions or increasing efficiency
• Decreasing operating expenses such as shipping charges for “emergency shipment”
• Reducing error rates through automated editing or validation
• Achieving quicker processing and turnaround of documents or transactions
• Capturing lost discount on money management
• Reducing bad accounts or bad credit losses
• Reducing inventory or merchandise losses through tighter controls
• Collecting receivables (accounts receivable) more rapidly

Key Deliverables of Inception Phase
Project Charter
Essential use case list
Project schedule
Cost/benefit analysis
Project feasibility and risk analysis
3 Areas of Project Monitoring and Controlling
Manage and control the project plan, including the schedule and deliverables
Manage and control internal and external communications
Manage and control the risks and outstanding issues
Types of Information
Project-related information
System or deliverable-related information
System Scope and Project Scope
Net Present Value (NPV)
the present value of dollar benefits and costs for an investment such as new system
Payback Period
the point at which the increased cash flows (benefits)exactly pays off the cost of development and operation; sometimes called breakeven point
Created and Reported by:
Kristel Mae Z. De Vera
Angela Marie D. Napeñas
Ysa Claire DC. Peñaranda
Joedaih Clouie D. Gellido
Rolando G. Caiña
What are business benefits?
Business Benefits
improvements or benefits that will accrue to the company as a result of the projec and its deliverables
2. These benefits should be concrete - related to a dollar value for the organization.
The activities in the environment discipline:
Project Schedule
lists all the activities and tasks of the projects and the order in which they must be completed
Steps developing the schedule
Identify the dependencies between the tasks- lowest-level items on each vertical branch
Estimate the effort required for each task
Ways to enter the resource information into MS Project:
Identify the specific resources for the project by using the Resource Sheet
Assign these resources to the tasks
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