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First and Second Ionization Energies

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Elizabeth Robertson

on 19 November 2013

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Transcript of First and Second Ionization Energies

The first ionization energy is the energy necessary to remove the highest-energy electron from a gaseous atom or ion. X + energy -------> X + e- The second ionization energy is the energy necessary to remove the second highest-energy electron from the same atom, after the first electron has been removed. X + energy -------> X + e- Definitions: How do the first and second ionization energies
of an element compare? First ionization energy significantly less than the second and later ionization energies. Why?
Much easier to remove an electron from a neutrally charged atom than from a positively charged atom
The actual difference between the first and second ionization energies is incredibly large. Why?
In the first group, the difference between first and second ionization energies is huge. The first electron is removed from a higher energy level, and therefore requires a lesser amount of energy, whereas the second electron is removed from a lower energy level (closer to the nucleus) and thus requires a greater amount of energy. 2+ + First ionization energy of Cl ---> Cl ---> S + Second ionization energy of Cl ---> Cl ---> P 2+ Trends: Left to Right First and second ionization energies increase *Unit for Ionization Energy*
kJ/mol VS. Boron (atomic number of 5)
Oxygen (atomic number of 8)
Why? Electron configurations!
Boron: B --> [He]2s 2p Exceptions: Exceptions: Lithium (atomic number of 3)
Carbon (atomic number of 6)
Fluorine (atomic number of 9)
Why? Electron configurations!
Lithium: Li --> [He]

Carbon: C --> [He]2s 2p

Fluorine: F --> [He]2s 2p Why? Effective nuclear charge!
Increasing atomic numbers, while same principal quantum number + 2 1 + 2 New sublevel p has higher energy, therefore easier to remove the outer electron (further away from nucleus) Electron repulsion in the first orbital of the 2p sublevel (making it an easier job to remove the outer electron) 1+ 1+ 2 1 Li --> 1s 2+ 1 C --> [He]2s 2+ 2 F --> [He]2s 2p 2 3 1+ 2+ 2 4 Trends: Top to Bottom First and second ionization energies decrease Why? Atomic radius!
Increasing atomic radius, changing principal quantum number
Greater number of electrons in between the outer electrons and nucleus First and Second
Ionization Energies No exceptions! Works Cited Clark, Jim. "First Ionisation Energy." Ionisation
Energy. ChemGuide.co.uk, n.d. Web. 14 Jan.
2013.
Dayah, Michael. Dynamic Periodic Table. 1 Oct. 1997.
Web. 17 Jan 2013 <http://www.ptable.com>.*
"Ionization Energy and Electron Affinity." Chemical
Education Division Groups. Purdue University,
n.d. Web. 17 Jan. 2013.
Stark, J. G., HG Wallace, and ML McGlashan. Basic
Chemistry Data Book. SI ed. London: J. Murray,
1975. Print.*
Zumdahl, Steven S., and Susan A. Zumdahl.
"Atomic Structure and Periodicity."
Chemistry. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006.
N. pag. Print.
*Sites used for graph data.
See images for sources.
(Introductory chemistry textbook used for reference) http://mediabelajaronline.blogspot.co.uk/2010/09/konfigurasi-elektron-dan-diagram.html http://mediabelajaronline.blogspot.co.uk/2010/09/konfigurasi-elektron-dan-diagram.html http://www.ptable.com/ http://www.ptable.com/ By Johnathan Cirenza, Elizabeth Robertson and Lena Youness E E + + 2+ Oxygen: O --> [He]2s p http://eclipse.pagecounty.k12.va.us/lyoder/ch_6_&_7.htm Be B http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1215SP2000/movies/41700lecture1g.html VS. 4 http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1215/lecture/chapter11/fri112098.html Lithium First ionization energy
(First e- removed) Second ionization energy
(Second e- removed) http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/ap/2004norman/chapter7/lec111000.html Carbon First ionization energy
(First e- removed) Second ionization energy
(Second e- removed) http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/1515SP01/Lecture/Chapter10/Lec11601.html First ionization energy
(First e- removed) First ionization energy
(First e- removed) Same situation as first ionization energy of boron. Fluorine Same situation as first ionization energy of oxygen. Second ionization energy
(Second e- removed) First ionization energy
(First e- removed) http://intro.chem.okstate.edu/ap/2004norman/chapter7/lec111000.html Lithium: ONLY element going across the second period that breaks into a new principal energy level. Therefore, the second electron being removed, which is much closer to the nucleus, is much more difficult to remove. Further annotations to accompany Prezi:

General Trends:
In general, the first ionization energy is significantly less than the second and later ionization energies (atoms can continue to lose electrons past the second ionization, for example, Krypton has 30 ionization energies). This occurs as it is much easier to remove an electron from a neutrally charged atom than a positively charged atom. The loss of the first electron (in the first ionization) results in the positive nucleus having a greater pull/influence on the remaining electrons.

In general, moving from left to right in a row on the periodic table, the ionization energy increases. This increase is caused by the increase of the number of protons in the nuclei. This in turn results in the charge of the nucleus increasing, which means a greater influence and pull on the electrons. As the electrons are more tightly bound, the energy necessary to remove them becomes much greater. [Effective nuclear charge]
There are however a few exceptions, for example, when moving from left to right, the first ionization energy of beryllium is 899.5. According to the rule that ionization energy should increase, Boron should have a greater ionization energy. However, Borons first ionization energy is 800.6, which is less than Beryllium’s. This exception is due to electron configuration. Beryllium is arranged as [He]2s2 and Boron on the other has an electron configuration of [He]2s2 2p1. It will be easier to remove an electron in Boron rather than Beryllium because Boron has electrons in sublevel p. Sublevel p has higher energy than sublevel s, and needs less energy to remove an electron from it. Therefore, it is easier to remove the 2p1 electron in Boron then to remove the 2s2 electron in Beryllium.
Another exception is seen, going from left to right, between Nitrogen and Oxygen. Nitrogen has a higher ionization energy than Oxygen, also because of its electron configuration. Nitrogen, [He]2s2 2p3, and Oxygen, [He]2s2 2p4, this means that oxygen has one more electron in the 2p sublevel. This means that the last electron in oxygen will be placed in an orbital that already has an electron. When the two electrons are placed in the same orbital, there is a slight repulsion, making it easier to remove the last electron.

Another trend is seen when moving down the periodic table. From Hydrogen to Francium, the ionization energy decreases (increase in principal quantum number). This decrease is because of the increasing atomic radius and therefore greater electron shielding. The further the electrons are from the nucleus the less energy you need to remove them.
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