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Chapter 7

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Anujin Khosbayar

on 21 March 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 7

Chapter 7
French Revolution and Napoleon

By: Anujin, Cj, Magda, Parker
The people of France were divided into three social classes called estates. The first estate was made up of clergy of the Roman Catholic Church. The second estate was made up of the rich nobles. The third estate included the bourgeolsie and the middle and lower classes. The third estate contributed to the French Revolution. There were new ideas of government, economic problems, and weak leadership which all helped generate the desire for change.
Lesson 1 – The French Revolution Begins
Lesson 1 – The French Revolution Begins
The third estate demanded equality, liberty, and democracy. France's economy started declining because of the rapid growth of production and trade. There were crop failures causing starvation and the government went into debt. Louis XVI was also a poor leader and made small effort in the role of a king. The third estate name themselves the National Assembly to pass laws and reform and once it was established, it ended absolute monarchy. A mob stormed the Bastille in search of gunpowder which became a symbolic act of Revolution. Panic spreads through France called the Great Fear.
Lesson 2 – Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
The National Assembly created the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, influenced by the Declaration of Independence, stated that men have the rights to liberty, security, property, and resistance to oppression. Revolutionary leaders made up the slogan, “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity”. The National Assembly reformed the Church which caused the peasants to oppose the National Assembly's reforms. The National Assembly created a new constitution which took away most of the monarchs authority.
Lesson 2 – Revolution Brings Reform and Terror
A new body was created called the Legislative Assembly which created laws and approved/rejected war. Shortage of food and debt was still a problem. So the Legislative Assembly split into three groups, the radicals, the moderates, and the conservatives. France went to war with Prussia and Austria because they took action in Louis restoring his place as absolute monarch. Robespierre (a Jacobin Ruler) came into rule, known as the Reign of Terror. The National Convention turned on Robespierre and had him executed. Napoleon Bonaparte came into rule.
Lesson 3 – Napoleon Forges an Empire
Royalist rebels attacked the National Convention in which Napoleon came in and attacked the rebels with a cannonade causing them to flee, Napoleon became hero of the hour. Napoleon led a French army against Austria and the Kingdom of Sardini, won victories in Italy, and attempted to protect French trades and disrupt British trade. Napoleon took the title of first consul and became dictator. Napoleon decided to crown himself emperor and had goals to control the rest of Europe. He lost the Battle of Trafalgar but had controlled most of Europe. But the French Empire went into a sudden collapse.
Lesson 4 – Napoleon's Empire Collapses
Lesson 5 – The Congress of Vienna
Meetings in Vienna, known as the Congress of Vienna were called to set policies for the goal of security and stability throughout Europe. The most influential representative out of all 5 from Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France, was Klemens von Metternich. He wanted to prevent future aggression, restore a balance of power, and restore royal families. Changes were made to make other countries around France stronger to keep France contained.
Lesson 5 – The Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna was a political success. It kept countries in Europe to cooperate to control political affairs. Fear of Revolution breaking out elsewhere, an agreement called the Holy Alliance was signed to combat the forces of Revolution. A series of alliances called the Concert of Europe ensured that nations would help each other if Revolution broke out. There was a Revolution in Latin America caused by the actions of the Congress of Vienna. The Congress of Vienna influenced world politics for 100 years, a new era began.
Napoleon made 3 mistakes causing the empires collapse. The first one was the peninsular war. Napoleon removed the Spanish king, and put his own brother, Joseph, on the throne. This outraged the Spanish people and for 6 years, the Spanish, present fighters known as Guerillas, struck at French armies. The second was the continental system. Napoleon set up a blockade to prevent all trade and communication between Great Britain and European nations. His blockade wasn't tight enough and smugglers brought cargo from Britain to France. The third mistake was the Invasion of Russia. Napoleon and his army of 420,000 soldiers marched into Russia. Russian raiders mercilessly attacked Napoleon's army.
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