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Speech Communities - Intersecting Communities - Networks and

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emine can

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of Speech Communities - Intersecting Communities - Networks and

Speech Communities - Intersecting Communities - Networks and Reportories

International Burch University
Master of Arts

Intersecting Communities
Networking and Repertoires
Speech community is hard to define it because there is not a true definition of it.
A community: a group of people with a shared set of activities, practices, beliefs, and social structures.
A speech community: a group of people who share similar ideas, uses, and norms of language.
The kind of group that sociolinguists attempt to study is called Speech Community.
Sociolinguistics: it is the study of language used within or among of speakers.
Group: It must have at least 2 members
There are different purposes that they get together.
Social , Religious, Political, Cultural.
Speech communities Characteristics
Group differentiation from, other speakers. Examples: social, cultural, ethnic.
Communities are defined with the relationship with other communities.

Definitions of Linguists
Noam Chomsky
concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener, in a completely homogeneous speech-community, who knows its language perfectly and is unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations, distractions, shifts of attention and interest, and errors.
William Labov
The speech community is not defined by any marked agreement in the use of language elements, so much as by participation in a set of shared norms.
John Gumperz
Any human aggregate characterized by regular and frequent interaction by means of a shared body of verbal signs and set off from similar aggregates by significant differences in language usage
Each person speaks their own “typical” way according to its place of origin or specific speech community.
Rosen claims that cities cannot be thought of as a linguistic patchwork maps, ghetto after ghetto because: 1. languages and dialects have no simple geographical distribution and 2. because interaction between them blurs whatever boundaries might be drawn .
Urbanization is a great eroder of linguistic frontiers.

Dialects and languages are beginning to influence each other.
London is a community in some sences but not in others. Neither a single speech community even though it has 300 languages or more . it's too big and fragmented .
It is to difficult to relate of speech community directly to language or languages spoken. 
The concept of SC is less useful than what is expected and we should be instead referring to group as any set of individuals united for a common end.
A person can belong to many different groups at any given time depending on the particular ends in view. 
Laura is living in Gotemborg Sweden . married to a Swedish man she and Per speak mostly English and Swedish switching and mixing both from time to time.She had to learn Swedish with an intense course in Sweden. She is an immigrant from Costa Rica. she has an accent, she doesn’t speak Swedish that well. She uses Swedish in the hospital, as well as English switching from time to time and from one group to another.

Each member of a community has a repertoire of social identities that are each one in a given context is associated with a number of nonverbal and verbal forms of expression.
There is not a clear way on how to define how individuals can classify themselves and speakers are creating and recreating social identities. So, it is impossible to predict the group or community he or she will consider itself to belong in a particular moment. This group will change according to situation .
Intensity of various relationships
Dense network: people you know and interact with also know and interact with one another
Multiplex: tied together in a network
Strong social cohesion
Feelings of solidarity
Encouragement to identify with others

OPEN and CLOSED networks
Its linguistic effect is intimately related to the type of community (small town or large city, Southern or Northern)

Open and Closed Networks
open network:
A network which provides open access to its users. Information is often new and of importance, a (serious) blogger and visitors of blog.
closed network:
mostly strong ties. Information that flows in those networks tends to be redundant and inefficient. Facebook.

Speech Repertoires
Verbal repertoire:
The totality of linguistic forms employed in a socially significant interaction. (vocabulary, grammar)
Speech repertoire
Linguistic varieties used by a speech community
: It is important to remember that group is a relative concept with respect to speech community. Also that an individual belongs to various speech communities, at the same time, but he/she will identify with only one of them.
There are many definitions for speech community which are all different: too simple or to complex
Each individual is a member of many different groups. People get interested to be identified with one groups members today and with others the next. They may or not overlap. One of the consequences is linguistic variation: people don’t speak alike.
Neither in the same way on every occasion. People have a need to be seen as the same as certain other people on some occasions and as different from them on others.
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