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sex categorization

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Tristan Bridges

on 9 September 2016

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Transcript of sex categorization

sex categorization
how does gender become a part of our interactions?
a "best guess" at how useful someone is going to be in performing some kind of task.
some kind of difference that exists between people to which a sense of lesser or greater value or esteem is given.
ex. the cultural belief in that men are more competent, while women are more nurturing (think of how this belief influenced
sex-role theory
)
performance expectations
status characteristics
gender status belief
you
work
family
peers
religion
school
mass
media
Functionalism

Conflict Theory

Symbolic Interactionism
why does deviance exist?
to help strengthen the social order
because of inequalities between competing groups
to interactionally establish social norms, roles, and expectations
how is "social cohesion" different in societies governed by mechanical vs. organic solidarity?
institutionalized means
cultural goals
accept
accept
reject
reject
conformity
innovation
ritualism
retreatism
rebellion
What we call "deviance" is actually deliberately chosen activities that are a response to inequalities between competing groups with different amounts of status and power.
Karl Marx
new criminology
according to this conflict theory, societies (particularly capitalist societies) are structured in ways that preserve existing systems of power and inequality.
direct report (control group)
veiled report (experimental group)
I remember where I was the day of the Challenger space shuttle disaster.

I spent a lot of time playing video games as a kid.

I would vote to legalize marijuana if there was a ballot question in my state.

I have voted for a political candidate who is pro-life.
Please fill in the bubble that corresponds to the total number of statements above that apply to you.

0 1 2 3 4
Do you believe lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt children?

Yes No
I remember where I was the day of the Challenger space shuttle disaster.

I spent a lot of time playing video games as a kid.

I would vote to legalize marijuana if there was a ballot question in my state.

I have voted for a political candidate who is pro-life.

I believe lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt children.
Please fill in the bubble that corresponds to the total number of statements above that apply to you.

0 1 2 3 4 5
sensitive questions used
related to the size of the LGB population
1a. Do you consider yourself to be heterosexual?
(direct report)
Sensitive answer: "No"

1b. I consider myself to be heterosexual.
(veiled report)

2a. Are you sexually attracted to members of the same sex?
(direct report)
Sensitive answer: "Yes"

2b. I am sexually attracted to members of the same sex.
(veiled report)

3a. Have you had a sexual experience with someone of the same sex?
(direct report)
Sensitive answer: "No"

3b. I have had a sexual experience with someone of the same sex.
(veiled report)
sensitive questions used
related to the sexual prejudice and LGBT-related sentiment
1a. Do you think marriages between gay and lesbian couples should be recognized as valid, with the same rights as heterosexual marriages?
Sensitive answer: "No"

1b. I think marriages between gay and lesbian couples should be recognized as valid, with the same rights as heterosexual marriages.

2a. Would you be happy to have an openly lesbian, gay or bisexual manager at work?
Sensitive answer: "No"

2b. I would be happy to have an openly lesbian, gay or bisexual manager at work.


3a. Do you believe it should be illegal to discriminate in hiring based on someone's sexual orientation?
Sensitive answer: "No"

3b. I believe it should be illegal to discriminate in hiring based on someone's sexual orientation.

4a. Do you believe lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt children?
Sensitive answer: "No"

4b. I believe lesbians and gay men should be allowed to adopt children.

5a. Do you think someone who is homosexual can change their sexual orientation if they choose to do so?
Sensitive answer: "Yes"

5b. I think someone who is homosexual can change their sexual orientation if they choose to do so.
mass collective action
crowd collective action
type of social change
limited
radical
target of collective action
entire society
particular subgroups
alternative
redemptive
reformative
revolutionary
1. emergence
3. routinization
2. coalescence
when the social problem being addressed is first identified
resources are mobilized and concrete actions are taken around the problems outlined in stage 1.
the movement becomes institutionalized and a formal structure develops to promote the cause.

origins + education
(social status/class of the family of origin)
(number of years of education)
destination
(the predicted degree of occupational prestige an individual is thought to be able to attain)
mediator
tertius gaudens
divide et impera
a
b
a
b
c
a
b
c
d
1 possible relationship
3 possible relationships
6 possible relationships
bridge tie
(weak)
embedded
me
not embedded, but great dispersion
pro-feminist
anti-feminist
low
reflexivity
high
reflexivity
the border boys
(n=15)
guys for gender
justice (n=22)
men can parent
too (n=27)
direct report
direct report
direct report
direct report
direct report
veiled report
veiled report
veiled report
veiled report
veiled report
The Effect of Veiled Report Treatment on Reports of Sensitive Behavior
sensitive answer
lgbt-related sentiment
not support same-sex marriage
not happy with lgb manager
not illegal to discriminate
lgb not allowed to adopt
can change orientation
% reporting sensitive answer (direct report)
∆ reporting of sensitive answer (veiled report)
% increase in sensitive answer (veiled report)
18.8
4.2
22.5
16.2
10.8
66.6
14.4
10.3
71.7
12.9
5.9
45.9
22.2
-7.0
-31.4
men
women
divorced adults (in 2009)
all adults (in 2009)
0
5
10
15
20
25
percentage of American population
11.1%
10.5%
14.3%
21.5%
masculine
feminine
gender as continuum
feminine
masculine
gender as orthogonal
not very "gender-y"
very "gender-y"
class average
question 1
question 2
question 3
question 4
question 5
question 6
question 7
question 8
question 9
question 10
84.32%
38.9%
86.3%
84.2%
84.2%
94.7%
93.7%
92.6%
88.4%
84.2%
75.8%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
proportion of the class
SOC100.03 - Introduction to Sociology (fall 2013)
Assessment Data
$200
$2,000
$20,000
$200,000
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
National Gross Domestic Product
(per capita)
National Fertility Rate
(live births per female)
Fertility Rates vs. GDP per capita, 224 nations
(source: CIA World Factbook)
U.S. Life Expectancy at Birth
(1900-2009)
1900
1925
1950
1975
2000
30
40
50
60
70
80
47.3
78.2
year
life expectancy at birth
boys
girls
probability of suspension
skin darkness
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0
Likelihood of Suspension by Skin Tone among African American Adolescents, NLSY97
institutionalized means
accept
reject
cultural goals
reject
accept
new goals
new means
conformists
innovators
ritualists
retreatists
rebels
boys
girls
unisex
*
gender
institutional
gender
individual
interactional
*
gender!
international
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
U.S.
Ireland
Canada
Spain
Australia
U.K.
Germany
France
Japan
Percentage of the National Population That Rate the Importance of God in Their Lives as a "10" (out of 10).
Data from: Inglehart, R. and W.E. Baker. 2000. Modernization, Cultural Change, and the Persistence of Traditional Values. American Sociological Review 65(1): 19-51
religion
functions
to tell "us" who "we" are, how "we" divide and make sense of the world, and what "we" value.
Karl Marx
Emile Durkheim
religion is the opiate of the masses!
Max Weber
Protestantism seemed to have an elective affinity with
capitalism.
several times a week
every week
2-3 times per month
once a month
several times a year
once a year or less
never
5%
10%
15%
20%
25%
30%
Source: Pew Forum on Religious and Public Life, 2010
1961
1980
2011
one child policy
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
I had at least one professor who made me excited about learning.

My professors at college cared about me as a person.

I had a mentor who encouraged me to pursue my goals and dreams.
I worked on a project that took a semester or more to complete.

I had an internship or job that allowed me to apply what I learned.

I was very active in extracurricular activities or organizations.
strongly agreed with all 6 statements
support
experiential
63%
27%
14%
32%
29%
20%
3%
% strongly agree
hegemonic
masculinity
emphasized
femininity
complicit
masculinity
subordinated / marginalized
masculinities
patriarchal
dividend
gender relations
power relations
production relations
emotional relations
symbolic relations
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
hegemonic
masculinity
emphasized
femininity
complicit
masculinity
subordinated / marginalized
masculinities
patriarchal
dividend
gender relations
power relations
production relations
emotional relations
symbolic relations
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
hegemonic
masculinity
emphasized
femininity
complicit
masculinity
subordinated / marginalized
masculinities
patriarchal
dividend
gender relations
power relations
production relations
emotional relations
symbolic relations
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
hegemonic
masculinity
emphasized
femininity
complicit
masculinity
subordinated / marginalized
masculinities
patriarchal
dividend
gender relations
power relations
production relations
emotional relations
symbolic relations
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
hegemonic
masculinity
emphasized
femininity
complicit
masculinity
subordinated / marginalized
masculinities
patriarchal
dividend
gender relations
power relations
production relations
emotional relations
symbolic relations
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
navigating
masculinities
historicizing
masculinities
multiplying
masculinities
dislocating
masculinities
hegemonic
masculinity
emphasized
femininity
complicit
masculinity
subordinated / marginalized
masculinities
patriarchal
dividend
gender relations
power relations
production relations
emotional relations
symbolic relations
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
crisis tendencies
dislocating
masculinities
multiplying
masculinities
historicizing
masculinities
navigating
masculinities
American's Confidence in Television Press (GSS, 1991)
as far as the people running the press, would you have...
a good deal of confidence
only some confidence
hardly any confidence
Column Total
average hours of daily TV watching
0-1 hour
2-4 hours
5 or more
Row Total
276
196
130
602
41
174
97
602
17
47
15
79
334
417
242
993
Opinions Regarding Grade Inflation in College
(observed frequencies)
students
professors
Column Total
yes
no
Row Total
47
217
264
272
112
384
319
329
648
1982-1996
(avg. annual)
1997
1998
(Title V Ab-Only Begins)
1999
2000
2001
(CBAE Begins)
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
(CBAE Ends)
2011
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
dollars (in milllions)
AFLA
CBAE
Total
Title V Ab-Only
Additional
Opinions Regarding Grade Inflation in College
(expected frequencies)
students

professors

Column Total
yes
no
Row Total
129.96
[(319*264)/648]
134.04

264
189.04

194.96
[(329*384)/648]
384
319

329

648
Opinions Regarding Grade Inflation in College
(observed frequencies)
students
professors
Column Total
yes
no
Row Total
47
217
264
272
112
384
column totals
row
totals
319
329
648
overall
sample
Relationship between Student Status
and College Experience
less than satisfied

satisfied

more than satisfied

Column Total
Traditional
Students
Row Total
Non-traditional
Students
Student Status
Satisfaction with college experience...
8.8% women
91.2% men
data source: International Centre for Prison Studies, 2013
Gender Breakdown of U.S. Prison Population
deviance
crime
nudity,
bizarre clothing
murder,
sexual assault
exceeding the speed limit, underage drinking
#drbridgessociology
incarceration
employment outcomes
alcohol/drug abuse
behavioral problems
poor interpersonal skills
incarceration
employment outcomes
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
percentage of applicants called back
black applicants
white applicants
5%
14%
17%
34%
criminal record
no criminal record
Pager (2003)
power relations
production relations
emotional relations
symbolic relations
HM
MM
CM
SM
EF
crisis tendencies
Comparing President Obama's 2009 and 2013 Inaugural Addresses
data source: www.whitehouse.gov
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
1952-62
1963-72
1973-82
1983-92
1993-2002
characterization
definition
emergence
medical
Principal Components of Racial Discussion in U.S. High School Textbooks, 1952-2002
data: Morning, Ann. 2008. Reconstructing Race in Science and Society: Biology Textbooks, 1952-2002. American Journal of Sociology 114(S1): 106-137.
Male-Dominated Occupations
Female-Dominated Occupations
Construction managers
Engineering managers
Railroad conductors and yardmasters
Crane and tower operators
Aircraft mechanics and service technicians
Power-line installers and repairers
Carpenters
Electricians
8.2%
6.3%
4.7%
3.7%
1.7%
1.4%
1.5%
1.0%
Dental hygienists
Preschool and kindergarten teachers
Childcare workers
Secretaries and administrative assistants
Word processors and typists
Registered nurses
Payroll clerks, bookkeeping, and auditing clerks
Maids and housekeepers
97.7%
97.6%
95.6%
96.1%
92.2%
91.7%
90.8%
90.1%
% women
1979
2007
men
women
white
white
black
black
Hispanic
Hispanic
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Percentage of Workers (25-34) Earning Less than $9/hour, by Gender and Race, 1979 and 2007
data: CPS ORG data
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0%
88%
24%
15%
15%
8%
lack of partner
professional reasons
financial reasons
too large of a commitment
other
Reasons for not Pursuing Childbearing Earlier among Women Undergoing Oocyte Cryopreservation
data: Hodes-Wertz, M.D., M.P.H., Brooke, Sarah Druckenmiller, B.A., Meghan Smith, M.D., and Nicole Noyes, M.D. 2013. What do Reproductive -Age Women Who Undergo Ooctye Cryopreservation think about the Process as a Means to Preserve Fertility? 100 (5): 1343-1349.
Fertility and Sterility
bottom 10%
11-20%
21-30%
31-40%
41-50%
51-60%
61-70%
71-80%
81-90%
top 10%
father's income percentile
% of sons working for their fathers in 2010
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
0%
2%
4%
6%
8%
10%
12%
14%
7.4%
8.4%
9.4%
10.6%
8.7%
9.3%
9.3%
10.0%
9.8%
12.5%
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
proportion of women in orchestra
2. carried for self and institutions
3. carried for self and "anyone"
1. carried for self
4. carried for self and selected others
ATM card
membership cards
credit cards
social security card
alcoholics anonymous
coin
letter from friend
prescription medicine
gum
"extra money"
tissues
lip balm
breath mints
seashell
photos of children
ticket stubs (movie/
concert)
expired id
Would it be bad for me / those for whom I am responsible if I lost control of this object?
YES
NO
Is this object personally meaningful to me?
YES
NO
most private/
least public objects
least private/
most public objects
Nippert-Eng's Sorting Model for Wallet and Purse Contents
source: data and model are from Christena Nippert-Eng's (2010)
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pp. 129.

Islands of Privacy.
4.6x
2.5x
2.0x
1.9x
higher if you're "engaged at work"
higher if you feel that college "prepared you well for life outside of college"
higher if you feel "emotionally attached to your college or university"
higher if you feel that college "is passiationate about the long-term success of its students"
4.6x
2.5x
2.0x
1.9x
higher if you're "engaged at work"
higher if you feel that college "prepared you well for life outside of college"
higher if you feel "emotionally attached to your college or university"
higher if you feel that college "is passiationate about the long-term success of its students"
1.7x
1.7x
1.5x
1.9x
higher if you "had a mentor who encouraged you to pursue your goals and dreams"
higher if you feel "my professors at college cared about me as a person"
higher if you "had at least one professor at college who made you excited about learning"
higher if you experienced all three of the above!
1.5x
1.4x
1.1x
1.9x
higher if you "had an internship or job allowing you to apply what you learned in college"
higher if you were highly "active in extracurricular activities and organizations in college"
higher if you "worked on a project that took a semester or more to complete"
higher if you experienced all three of the above!
2.6x
2.4x
higher if you feel "college prepared you well for life outside of college"
higher if you feel that college "is passionate about the long-term success of its students"
2.2x
2.0x
1.9x
2.3x
higher if you "had a mentor who encouraged you to pursue your goals and dreams"
higher if you "had at least one professor at college who made you excited about learning"
higher if you feel "my professors at college cared about me as a person"
higher if you experienced all three of the above!
2.0x
1.8x
1.8x
2.4x
higher if you "had an internship or job allowing you to apply what you learned in college"
higher if you "worked on a project that took a semester or more to complete"
higher if you were highly "active in extracurricular activities and organizations in college"
higher if you experienced all three of the above!
housework
dependency
providership
wives
husbands
1500 - 1840
best average speed of sailing ships and horse-drawn coaches - 10 mph
1850 - 1930
steam locomotives average speed
- 65 mph
steamships average speed - 36mph
1950s
propeler aircraft average speed - 300-400 mph
1960s
jet passenger aircraft average speed - 500-700 mph
today
What's the average speed of an email or Facetime phone call?
?
Ben Haggerty (Mackelmore) releases "Same Love" in 2012, a rap ballad challenging hip-hop homophobia
The Warwick University Men's Rowing Team's nude photo shoots to financially support the team and raise awareness of homophobia in sports.
James Franco and other straight identified actors receive incredible praise for accepting gay roles and LGB support.
hybrid masculinities
the selective incorporation of elements of identity typically associated with various marginalized and subordinated masculinities and - at times - femininities into privileged men's gender performances and identities.
strategic borrowing
fortifying boundaries
discursive distancing
hybrid masculine practices often work in ways that create some discursive distance between young, straight, white men and "hegemonic masculinity"
hybrid masculinities are often premised on the notion that hte masculinities available to young, straight, white men are less meaningful than those associated with various "Others."
hybrid masculine strategies often work in ways that obscure inequalities based on race, gender, sexuality, and class.
religiosity
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
% who say "homosexuality should be accepted by society"
staying married
divorcing
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
2 years before
1 year before
year or divorce or separation
1 year after
2 years after
time
level of stress
(on a scale from 0-36)
Children's Levels of Mental Stress in the Years Surrouding Divorce or Separation
time
population size
time
population size
time
population size
time
population size
time
population size
A
B
D
E
C
Othering Other Men:
Transformations in Gender and Politics among Men
"Man Caves" in straight, gay, and lesbian couple households
Adaptations
Resistance
A New Framework for
Considering Change
Hybrid Masculinities
(edited volume)
Bridges and Pascoe
mass shootings, masculinity & homophobia
trans* visibility
& violence
Othering Other Men:
Transformations in Gender and Politics among Men
Adaptations
A New Framework for
Considering Change
Hybrid Masculinities
(edited volume)
Bridges and Pascoe
pro-feminist
anti-feminist
high reflexivity
low reflexivity
guys for gender justice (n = 22)
men can parent too (n = 27)
the border boys (n = 15)
historicizing
navigating
multiplying
dislocating
Roe v. Wade, 1973
1990
2015
1995
2000
2005
2010
The Washington Times
initiates a public investigation against The Boy Scouts of America. Discovery of "the perversion files."
1991
April 12. Kerry Lewis is awarded $1.4 million in damages in
2010
Kerry
Lewis v. The Boy Scouts of America.
April 23. Lewis is awarded $18.5 million more in punitive damages.
June 15. Lewis' lawyer and the media ask to have the "perversion files" released to the public.
2012
June 14. The Oregon Supreme Court approved the public release of the "perversion files."
October 18. The "perversion files" were officially released to the public.
1985
2015
2003
2006
2009
2012
The New York Times

releases 225 articles in 100 days on sexual abuse in the Catholic Church.

2002
"John Jay Report" released (thousands of volunteer surveys completed by dioceses)
2004
The Boston Globe

alleges that the Archdioceses secretly settled cases between 1992 and 2002.

2007
Lawyers officially withdraw case against the Vatican and the Pope.
2012 (February)
"John Jay Report" released (thousands of volunteer surveys completed by dioceses)
2010
Sunshine State
(2002)
He Said, She Said
(1991)
Angela Bassett
Charlayne Woodard
Kevin Bacon
Shortest Path between Angela Bassett and Kevin Bacon
seriously?!? no one tweets in this class?
give me a break

am I helping or hurting... or both?
Sociology NOW, third edition

by Michael Kimmel, Amy Aronson, & Tristan Bridges
(under contract, Pearson)

Othering Other Men: Hybrid Masculinity and Transformations in Gender and Politics among Men

by Tristan Bridges
(Prospectus and manuscript in prepartion)

The Hybrid Masculinities Reader

by Tristan Bridges, C.J. Pascoe, and Sarah Diefendorf
(Prospectus and manuscript in prepartion)
Full transcript