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Picric Acid

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by

Jena Grahn

on 10 September 2015

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Transcript of Picric Acid

1771-Peter Woulfe obtained it by treating indigo with nitric acid
1849-Used as a yellow dye in silks
1886-French began using it as a bursting charge for shells under the name of melinite
1904-Used in the Russo-Japanese War as the most widely used military explosive
History
Picric Acid
(NO2)3C6H2OH
Phenol trinitrate, 2,4,6-Trinitrophenol
MW=229.1 g/mol
Soluble in hot water and readily soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene or acetone
Composition
It is manufactured using phenol, but there are limitations on how much phenol is readily available.
Also, the yield is only 70-75% of what is theoretically calculated.
Nitrous fumes given off during the process are hazardous to a person's health.
The manufacturing process includes the nitrating dinitrophenol in the presence of sulfuric acid with one molecular proportion of nitric acid.
Manufacturing Process
Description of chemical: solid, pale yellow, odorless, and bitter
Ingesting 1-2g causes severe poisoning
Rapid heating can cause it to explode
Keep in a cool dry place
Very toxic and corrosive to the skin and eyes
May explode when exposed to heat, friction, or shock
Highly flammable when dry
Incompatible with strong oxidizing & reducing agents, bases, metals
Physical/Chemical Properties
Has many antiseptic and astringent properties
Used in surface anesthetic ointment and also in burn ointments
Military explosive
Yellow dye and other pigments
Electric batteries
Leather industry
Uses/Applications
HPLC

Methods of Analysis
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/idlh/88891.html
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0515.html
http://www.google.com/patents/US1299171
https://www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_263300.html
http://www.infomine.com/library/publications/docs/CyanideMethodPicricAcid2.pdf
Resources
Full transcript