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Agriculture Biotechnology

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on 4 April 2014

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Transcript of Agriculture Biotechnology

Agriculture Biotechnology
Plant genetic engineering
Transgenic Plants:
Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically engineered, a breeding approach that uses recombinant DNA techniques to create plants with new characteristics.
The products of plant genetic engineering:
Genetically Modified organism (GMO)
Genetically Engineered organism(GEO)

Commonly Used Methods in
transgenic plants:
*Agrobacterium tumefaciens
*Gene Gun /Biolistics
*Electroporation

The most importan techniques
in genetic engineering:
1. Cleavage of DNA .
2. Gel Electrophoresis.
3. DNA sequencing.
4. Nucleic acid hybridization.
5. DNA cloning.
6. DNA engineering.

Genetic Engineering was used in the
transfer of many traits to the plant,
including:

 Insect Pest Tolerance
 Herbicide Resistance
 Heavy Metal Resistance
 Frost Tolerance
 Modified Growth
 Salinity Tolerance

Green biotechnology is used to modify
the genetic composition of plants to enhance
existing traits or add new ones.
genetically modify food
An additional gene was inserted into the normal genome of this corn that triggers the production of proteins that then
protect the plant from harmful insects.
This reduces the need for pesticides and increases crop yields
Bt corn
protect the plant from harmful insects.
Bt cotton
a higher resistance to pests
Golden Rice
helping to correct a worldwide
Vitamin A deficiency.

soybean
provide the best pest and
disease resistance
Why genetically modify food?
Food biotechnology is and will continue to be an important area in science as the world’s human population continues to increase and the world’s agricultural lands continue to decrease.

There are a lot of reasons why we genetically modify food. One of them is:

Better Nutrient Composition
*Some plants, during processing, lose some of the vital nutrients they once possessed.

*Others are grown in nutrient poor areas.

*Both these problems can be solved by introducing genes into plants to increase the amount or potency of nutrients.“Biofortification”

The Future of Food Biotechnology
Food biotechnology has the potential to:

Reduce natural toxins in plants.
Provide simpler and faster ways to detect pathogens.
Extend freshness in our produce.
Increase farming efficiency.

Future Health Benefits
“Golden rice”
Reduced allergens in food
Improved nutritional content

What is biotechnology?
The first characteristic of this technique it combines modern scientific means to solve problems, "technical" and the production of useful products "vital

Began the traditional ways of thousands of years when farmers animal breeding and cultivation of the plant for the production of food so distinctive qualities and is characterized by higher productivity and innovation of new species taste better ... etc.

Grapefruit originated from
traditional biotechnology !
Our ancestors excelled in the cultivation of varieties of palm in a selective manner has produced distinctive types of dates
PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
Plant Genetic Engineering
Plant genetic engineering involves the manipulation of genes at cellular and molecular levels.
Using techniques of plant genetic engineering, it is now possible to isolate genes of interest form one kind of organism incorporating them into another, thus resulting in the permanent change inn the genetic make-up of the recipient.


Chloroplast Engineering:
DNA in a cell chloroplast can also accept new genes.
Plant can be transformed with new traits using chloroplast DNA
Pollen DNA is separate from chloroplast DNA hence, transformed chloroplast cannot be released along with pollen DNA


Generally ripe tomatoes are red and juicy; usually perish
quickly if not refrigerated and mushy….
The FlavrSavrTM tomato (introduced in 1994by Calgene Inc.)
can stay ripe for weeks!!!! Without perishing quickly. Why?
The Flavr Savr tomato is designed to ripen on the vine, with minimal softening and transported to consumers, a definite plus for grocery stores.


Ripe tomatoes produces the enzyme polyglacturonase(PG).
The PG enzyme is responsible for the breakdown pectin,
a building block in cell walls, which gives tomatoes their firmness.
To slow down the softening process, the Flavr Savr employs
antisense technology to block PG enzyme production.
Antisense technology is a method of gene silencing.


Antisense technology is a method of gene silencing.
The first step in this process involved the isolation of the PG gene from the tomato.
The first step is to clone the antisense DNA with the PG gene and insert this DNA into the plasmid of an agrobacterium.
The bacterium is introduced to plant cells which transfers the gene of interest into plant cells.
The cells with the plasmid are grown by adding specific hormones.



The re-generated plants will express the antisense DNA and when the mRNA is made through the process of transcription the sense mRNA will bind to the anti-sense mRNA.
This interferes with protein production (PG enzyme in tomato).
Antisense is being developed for potatoes to resist bruising.


Antisense technology
The negative effects associated
with the products of
genetically modified plants..

 The risk of unintended
 Effects on human health
 Effects on animal health
 Effects on the environment

visions of the future about products and genetically modified plant.
Rawan Badurayq
Wala'a Alshareef
Kholoud Baghdadi
Fatimah Najjar
Asmaa Almuteri
Maha Bashmail
Nada Alshilali
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