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Transcript of TOK Presentation
Costa Rica has many available, easily exploitable, and profitable resources such as vast forests and mineral deposits
Costa Rica is a less developed country, it could create a basis for a thriving economy off of these resources
As a less developed country, Costa Rica needs to divert precious personnel and resources to manage these natural reserves
25.6% of land is reserved for conservation
45 different international environmental treaties
Strip mining is now banned to boost eco- tourism
3/5 of gross domestic product is from eco-tourism
6% of Earth's biodiversity while only having 0.03% of Earth's surface area
Strict licenses required to fish off the coast
Over 90% of people in Hawaii say they eat fish on a regular basis
Historically, fishing has been a tradition and means of gathering food in Hawaii since the ancient Hawaiians arrived
Immigrants from East Asia that came to Hawaii to work the plantations brought their cultures along with them, which included a long history of fishing
There are several local-based conservation groups in Hawaii (Sustainable Coasts Hawaii, Malama Maunalua, etc.)
To what extent does the culture of a population affect the harvesting of natural resources?
"The most important environmental issue is one that is rarely mentioned, and that is the lack of conservation ethic in our culture. "
"a healthy ecology is the basis for a healthy economy."
“it is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment."
– ANSEL ADAMS
Environmental Protection Agency - Founded December 2, 1970. It is in charge of writing and enforcing laws and regulations protecting humans and the environment
The US fishing fleet has advanced technology (GPS, double trawls, refrigerated holds, better boats, etc.)
In 2009, the US consumed 4427 tons of marine fish (Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)
"All is connected... no one thing can change by itself."
- PAUL HAWKEN
Government Vision for Fishing:
Management, conservation and development of sustainable fisheries resources to contribute to ensuring people’s food security and to socioeconomic development in order to enhance people’s livelihoods and the nation’s prosperity.
Poor people have no other way to provide for themselves and their families
Despite the governments policies, people continue to fish off-season illegally, as it's their main/only source of income
Azizi, Rey. "Cambodia's Fishing Industry Is Ailing." Deutsche Welle. N.p., 9 Mar. 2008. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.dw.de/cambodias-fishing-industry-is-ailing/a-5213173>.
"Calgary-based Mining Company Suing Costa Rica for More than $1 Billion." Global News. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. <http://globalnews.ca/news/883756/calgary-based-mining-company-suing-costa-rica-for-more-than-1-billion/>.
Chenda, Sok. "Environment Protection." Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC). N.p., 2013. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.cambodiainvestment.gov.kh/investors-information/environment-protection.html>.
"Costa Rica Fishing Reports -Best Prices on Fishing in Costa Rica." Costa Rica Fishing Reports -Best Prices on Fishing in Costa Rica. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2013. <http://www.costaricafishingreport.com/>.
"Environment | Embajada De Costa Rica En DC." Environment | Embajada De Costa Rica En DC. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. <http://www.costarica-embassy.org/?q=node/12>.
"Freshwater Fishing the Lakes, Rivers, and Creeks of Costa Rica." Costa Rica Star News Current Events Noticias De Costa Rica RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. <http://news.co.cr/freshwater-fishing-lakes-rivers-creeks-costa-rica/3066/>.
"Hawaii Longline Fishery Logbook Statistics." NOAA PIFSC. US Department of Commerce, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.pifsc.noaa.gov/fmb/reports/hlreports/areport_items.php?yr=2012>.
Nam, So. "Fisheries Resources in Cambodia-Current Status, Key Issues, Directions." Icem.com. Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute (IFReDI), n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2013. <http://www.icem.com.au/documents/envassessment/mrc_sea_hp/1.%20inception/presentations/cambodia%20scoping%20workshop/pdf/Fisheries%20Resources%20in%20Cambodia%20-%20Current%20Status,%20Key%20Issues,%20Directions.pdf>.
"Study: Most of Hawaii's Commercial Seafood Is Imported Hawaii Free Press." Study: Most of Hawaii's Commercial Seafood Is Imported Hawaii Free Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. <http://www.hawaiifreepress.com/ArticlesMain/tabid/56/ID/10010/Study-Most-of-Hawaiis-commercial-seafood-is-imported.aspx>.
"Sustaining Hawaii's Seafood." SFGate. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Nov. 2013. <http://www.sfgate.com/hawaii/alohafriday/article/Sustaining-Hawaii-s-seafood-3776481.php>.
"Overfishing." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Dec. 2013. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
"Epa." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 14 Nov. 2013. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
Miller, G. Tyler, and Scott E. Spoolman. Living in the Environment: Principles, Connections, and Solutions. 17th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, 2012. Print.
"FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Global Statistical Collections." FAO Fisheries & Aquaculture - Global Statistical Collections. United Nations, n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013.
GOVERNMENT vs. PEOPLE
The government created policies to try and regulate fishing around the country
The fact that they're an LEDC means that the people are more focused with their struggle for survival
It becomes a "battle of ideals" of sorts between the government and the people
ASSOCIATED AOKs & WOKs
The Costa Rican government has an Environmental Wisdom Worldview
Belief that society is a part of, and is reliant on nature
Switched from a manufacturing based economy
Natural Sciences and Ethics are the Areas of Knowledge used to justify this worldview
Emotion and reason may be as ways of knowing to stand by their worldview
JUSTIFICATION & VERIFICATION
The worldview is supported by
Natural Sciences- Decreased erosion, sustainable biological resources, carbon neutral by 2015
Ethics- People have strong environmental values, social pressure to protect ecosystems
Emotion- Along with ethics, people feel positive about protecting the environment (social pressure, and country happiness rating)
Reason- Given Costa Rica's assets and situation, easy profit can be made to protect a valuable resource (win-win situation)
ASSOCIATED AOKs & WOKs
Government is attempting to implement a Stewardship Worldview
we should make sure resources are used sustainably so we don't run out
The people are more concerned with their well-being and practice a Planetary Management Worldview
Resources exist for human use
Area of Knowledge that justifies each's view: Ethics
Ways of Knowing that justify each's view: Emotion and Reason
I am enrolled in ESS( Environmental Systems and Societies)
I come from an area where eco-tourism is the main source of income
Hawaii also is a smaller land mass with higher amounts of biodiversity
JUSTIFICATION & VERIFICATION
Government believes that they can improve their standing as an LEDC by ensuring that they don't run out of fish for their people
The citizens believe that providing for themselves comes first.
People are more concerned about their families and their health. Providing them with food brings them much more immediate satisfaction than starving but protecting the environment
The priorities of the two groups are completely different. With the current economic state of the country, the government is looking ahead in trying to preserve what resources they have.
The people simply want to have enough food on the table to live on to the next day
ASSOCIATED AOKs & WOKs
The U.S. follows the
Humans are separate from the rest of nature, technology will make up for the excessive exploitation of the worlds resources, and success depends on a growing economy
The related AOK's are Natural Sciences, History, and Ethics
The WOK's that are associated with this are Reason and Sense-Perception
Natural Science - Many of the U.S.'s species are threatened with extinction and most of the countries ecosystems have been altered to some extent
History - The U.S. has embraced the Planetary Management worldview for most of its existence (Manifest Destiny, the Industrial Revolution, Urbanization)
Reason/Ethics - Many people in important political and business positions value economic growth over environmental conservation
This strategy is extremely detrimental to the environment, however, it strongly promotes economic strength and power
Sense-Perception - One of the reasons that environmental problems are not as prominent in American society as other issues is that the consequences are "out of sight, out of mind"
Home to some of the most intense fisheries in the world
Catch is 7x more than US fisheries
(2.6 million tonnes/ year)
Loss of fish biodiversity leads to economic issues
45.5% of Cambodia's people fish for a living
82.1% of all of Cambodia's animal protein is from fish
"The state shall protect the environment and balance of abundant natural resources and establish a precise plan of management of land, air, and water resources" -Minister Sok Chenda on Basic Policy for Environmental Protection
Like our homeland of Hawaii, overfishing is one of, if not the most pressing environmental issue plaguing Cambodia
End of the Line
that we watched in ESS class relates directly to the issue of overfishing
AOK's and WOK's
Hawaii has a stewardship worldview
Views the environment as something that we use for our gain, and are therefor responsible to maintain it
The land provides for us therefore we must take care of it in return (Malama 'aina)
AOK's used are Natural & Human Sciences, History, and Ethics
Ancient Hawaiians practiced sustainability (Ahupuaa, kapu, fishponds etc.)
WOK's addressed are Reason
Living sustainably is a necessity since the islands are isolated