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BERA Conference 2012, Manchester

British Educational Research Association Annual Conference, September 5, 2012

Sara Hennessy

on 2 November 2012

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Transcript of BERA Conference 2012, Manchester

Embedding and sustaining interactive pedagogy – with and without ICT – over time; INITIAL TEACHER EDUCATION...

Aims and values not currently aligned with African curriculum; inconsistent policy re. pedagogy

Policymakers: same tools can be used in pedagogically very different ways; rich potential of new technologies must be strategically exploited...

How can we stop other governments/sponsors repeatedly "dropping in" technology without thinking about teacher development and quality (pedagogically principled) learning resources? CREATIVITY – enabling thinking to move in exciting and unpredictable directions
collaborative writing &
mind-mapping with

more open-ended questioning

soliciting of prior knowledge

techniques to help reticent learners contribute ('no hands up', 'magic microphone’ etc)... freely available on internet
easy to download
multiple formats
share on flash sticks ICT OER PD Internet-based
resources open questioning and whole class dialogue promoting
group work
University of Cambridge, UK Open (digital)
Resources Lack of skills
Lack of confidence
Lack of training Lack of devices
Lack of technical support
Lack of software Rigid curriculum or assessment scheme that does not blend with ICT Professional development resources sch30@cam.ac.uk, bjohas@gmail.com, melissa.marsden@gmail.com (except images, video, logos) focussed
activities other digital resources background
reading new pedagogical & lesson ideas audio
resources lesson video clips texts http://tinyurl.com/OER4schools
http://tinyurl.com/ICTPUBS group work and discussion adaptive approach

dialogic, co-enquiry


iterative cycle "Zambian teachers rarely find time to discuss as members of staff. The discussions that we were doing where teachers were bringing their own ideas, could be happening in schools. The obstacle there is that teachers work as an island, this teacher does not want to sit down with another teacher." (Yoram Sakala) OER4Schools Resource What works ... ... in the classroom teacher
development... Pilot work with 8 primary teachers in maths and science
Intensive work and filming with 3 teachers
Support: in-school / online / phone
Workshops Conducting and trialling the process through
partnership classroom trialling
(+ peer observation) post-lesson reflection:
audio diary /
colleagues in workshop new approach / technique reflection on
current practice /
drawing on prior
knowledge trialling with peers
in workshop video as stimulus for reflection & discussion MOBILE technologies... T: Maybe I could get three types of photos and give them similar photos and ask the same questions to each. Different items, maybe four.
R: Putting the same sets of pictures on each tablet, then they will have four mini-investigations to look at depending on how much time. You can decide how much time you have.
T: Even when they are counting in the grids, they will know what this is. So when using the grids, each group will have different things.
R: So you mean compare the answers from different groups?
T: I remember before when two groups were assigned to measure the length of the corridor, they came up with different answers, but though they were in the same group.
R: That’s really good isn’t it? That makes a talking point – I think that’s good. Then it’s a question of why. That’s when you discuss with them why. R: Maybe they could work out the area of something at their desk? A piece of paper, or they could measure their tablets?
T: That would work – even for the height, it would bring in the concept of them knowing what we are trying to get: the area of [an object].
R: So what is best after that introduction? Should they measure something and do their own area calculation? T: That’s when I’ll bring up the formula itself of finding area.
R: Ok so use the formula to apply it to an object nearby? That’s what you could do with the tablet – measure the area of the device. mini whiteboards taking learners' perspectives seriously affiliated colleges group work whole class dialogue & open questioning assessment for learning inquiry-based learning sharing the vision with parents, other teachers, and schools Supporting interactive teaching in science & maths with & without ICT educator
notes OER4SCHOOLS: Supporting interactive teaching – with & without ICT – in Zambian primary schools through school-based professional development http://tinyurl.com/OER4schoolswiki How to use the resource:
working with colleagues
initial teacher education
distance learning
adapt or use parts
make your own course
self study “For the group work, I think it really helps the slow learners because there are some pupils who are just too quiet. ... Now when they are in a group, they are forced to say something – so it really helps” (Eness) “Most of the answers were being provided by the pupils. So I can say there was more talking [by] the pupils than the teacher – the pupils were doing more work than the teacher .” (Agness) T: The lesson was ok – [but] maybe the work was not challenging. Too easy for some students. I could see what they are doing in groups. They need more challenging problems.
R: Any other thoughts?
T: I think they didn’t discuss because the work was so easy, so they could not discuss further. There wasn’t much to discuss.
R: When did you notice that was too easy?
T: The way they were raising their hands, when that girl came to the front. I wasn’t calling on the ones with their hands up. integrating ICT with other resources Games mobile apps (low power, robust) (low bandwidth, download) Pedagogy

Interactive pedagogy for ICT use in a developing context: Zambia...

Professional learning resource

Research trial

Digital Open Educational Resources

A model of professional development

Conclusions and challenges ahead Whole school trial at Chalimbana Basic School
12 teachers
Grades 4 - 6
peer facilitator with remote support
one school year
participatory approach mini blackboards lesson
planning modify practice Recent trials at colleges & universities
Two-part taster workshops: Induction with lecturers who then run session with students
Student feedback overwhelmingly positive Questions
time in preparation
suitable digital materials supporting interactive teaching
investment in changing practice
use of time in classroom
'noise' and classroom 'control'
changing traditional practice is challenging Was there a supportive environment for pupil participation and dialogue in this lesson? If so, how did the teacher achieve this?

How did she help pupils to work out whether the bat was a mammal? Did this discussion move their thinking forward?

What did you think about teacher control and pupil learning in this video clip?

How would you encourage pupil talk in your classroom without losing too much control? 4 Toshiba laptops fixed on large table
12 Lenovo & Samsung netbooks
Soekris server linked to TC internet
wifi links through nanostations
low power, high resilience
5 min. automatic reinstall of Ubuntu OS
file sync between laptops and server
easy upload and download
open source interactive apps
Ts and Ps responsible for equipment; handwashing
laser printer
Ts sharing own innovative practices

raised learner motivation & enjoyment

workshops & audio diaries encouraged critical reflection on traditional practices

changes in practice & mindset

extension to all grades What was the teacher able to achieve in this small group work that would be difficult in the whole class?

How does a teacher (or workshop facilitator!) know when to intervene in groupwork?

How did the use of ICT help the learners’ inquiry? ICT as discrete subject vs. integrated ICT lab vs. classroom use
portable technologies
New technologies offer new opportunities – giving teachers motivation and a license to experiment and take risks

needs careful, sustained T support

video can offer effective stimulus for debate and challenging traditional practices

cycle of classroom trialling and reflection develops and applies new ideas: new in SSA 1. Given increasing connectivity and hardware/software provision, what pedagogical models do we now need to employ?

2. How can we shift away from ICT labs? 

3. How can we get ICT into subject teaching at HE and school levels? 

4. How can interactive pedagogy – with and without ICT – be embedded? How can we sustain support over time? What BL approaches might work? OER4Schools Resource Outline school ICT installation Obstacles Conclusions Outcomes
...opens up the learners' minds… creates curiosity
...builds confidence through interaction
...helps slow learners and those who are shy, to participate
...offers learners the freedom to express their views
...promotes learning through deep questioning techniques
...should be encouraged in all the schools in Zambia
...if learners are fully involved it is not easy for them to forget what they are taught

...was real / live / interesting / encouraging / helpful

...introduced me to some strategies I can use to develop understanding in my learners. It also introduced me to value brainstorming as an important tool in introducing a particular topic

If we had more of these programmes, teaching and learning would be more advanced than the way they are. Students say interactive teaching... Students say interactive teaching  Sara Hennessy, Björn Haßler and Melissa Marsden More info & research papers: Judith's lesson
division problems in pace groups
answers scored on board: class laugh at group scoring 0 Workshop

Some pace grouping issues raised
challenge of devising several tasks – even harder with ICT
low achievers may be ridiculed
challenge of same exams for all “We have learned that if we mix them up then it is to the advantage of
the slow learners because they are able to learn from their friends...
So, through interactive ICT, which we have learned, it is really
helping pupils to share more ideas, including those who used to be
idle. They are able to participate now… It is helping every child in
the class… So to me this is an advantage I have gained.”

Judith, interview

Planning a mixed pace group work with ICT task
Differentiation by task instead of by group integrating ICT with other resources ...opens up the learners' minds… creates curiosity and the workshop
lesson observation and video recording
workshop video/audio recording
teacher & SLT interviews, focus group
audio diaries for our research & T reflection
workshop facilitator reflections
'most significant change' technique "Some of the aspects [of the programme] are new, like where you use the ICT when you want to teach interactively. We never had this opportunity but it’s there now. So it’s just one of the components of interactive teaching where you use the ICT." Supporting interactive teaching with ICT If I [teach] I think it is quite ok. But if [a colleague] comes to observe me and talk to me how my lesson was, it means I am being motivated. I want to do more and I want to improve more. I think that [feedback] is what I personally would need, yes. … Whether positive or negative, it will be more efficient for me because I want to go forward.

I feel this is a workshop, we’re learning something from one another who understand [interactive teaching]. So, we can come up with a lot of things, even right now, we have talked about our negative parts in an indirect way. Peer observation and challenging feedback "ICT for Education"course, Chalimbana University diploma course for college lecturers and school teachers

intertwining interactive pedagogy with introduction to ICT tools

embedding use of tools in classroom activities and enquiry-based learning offers a more effective way to teach about ICTs Integrating resource into Unisa's ODL diploma courses for maths & science teachers AIMS of ICT-enabled T&L

(1) General educational outcomes (critical thinking, pupil ownership & involvement, problem-solving skills)

(2) Specific outcomes ("slower evolving ICT skills", programming, networking, power, ...) Issues

Aims and values not currently aligned with African curriculum

Different paradigms are needed to keep up with developments (teacher in facilitator role, rapid assimilation of new trends within schools)
What supporting and constraining factors influence the integration of ICT and interactive teaching in low-resourced basic schools in Zambia?

What impact does participation in the programme have on teachers' thinking and classroom practices, with and without ICT? Research questions http://tinyurl.com/BERA2012 This prezi: Data collection BERA Conference 2012, Manchester focus on participation and learning of
ALL students lesson pacing Pedagogy differentiation by task not group peer support with ICT and classwork Geogebra.org STeM OER for primary and secondary teachers & teacher educators

An open course book with OER arranged under pedagogical themes

Mediawiki with RSS The Open Resource Bank on Interactive Teaching Filtered, tagged, re-usable lesson ideas

Explicit pedagogical rationale Efficient transmission of information... but wasteful of interactive potential

“PowerPointlessness”: over-use of “bells and whistles” (Adams 2006) What pedagogies do digital learning environments enable? joint responsibility for learning: teacher as learner,
students sometimes ‘experts’ learning community OR... low on HDI (164/187)
passive, rote learning
copying from board
curriculum coverage
misalignment between theory & practice "Creative Learning Enhanced by New Media" "learning with creativity &
learning for creativity"

"creative exploration is encouraged,
new ideas are constantly tested"

"creativity is accelerated in group collaboration"... Professional
learning approach
sustained, long-term process
dedicated non-contact time (SLT support)
supportive community of practice; constructive peer feedback...
...trialling new ICTs in workshops first, creating/seeking (open) digital resources
modelling interactive pedagogy itself "training"


one-day course

technical focus / technical experts

models of “best practice” Teachers adapt new ideas & resources to existing practice, beliefs, constraints rather than changing their practices to exploit the new ideas (Kennewell, 2004) Transformation? Professional learning approach practitioner leadership & agency...
linked to teacher agendas, beliefs, values, pedagogies
provocative external stimulus: digital video & other exemplars of practice
critiquing strangers' practices (less threatening, more generic discussion)
prompts for reflection & peer discussion
embedded tasks related to teachers' own classroom practice
materials and activities contextualised for country http://tinyurl.com/ORBITwiki

Videos: http://www.youtube.com/user/OER4Schools Challenges
mixed pace groups and differentiation by task...

more peer collaboration

acceptance of classroom “noise”

learners presenting to peers

mini blackboards

more practical work

"talking points" New approaches New approaches OERs facilitate sharing of pedagogically principled approaches and resources Virtual Identities Digital Arts Project collaboration between 4 schools exchanging 'digital postcards’ newspaper cuttings scan of hand: fingers resembled flames of Iraq war transforming physical objects into digital images, experimenting with visual language resulting images recorded collaborative development of ideas http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/course/view.php?id=3623 Prof. Hoisoo Kim, Korea (President, KAEIM) Video of Grade 3: children devising own classifications of animals using pictures on Android tablets ORBIT + CCITE (Cambridge Centre for Innovation in Technological Education) GeoGebra summer school in Cambridge Pedagogy freely available on internet
easy to download
multiple formats
share on flash sticks How to use the resource:
working with colleagues
initial teacher education
distance learning
adapt or use parts
make your own course
self study OER4Schools Resource “We have learned that if we mix them up then it is to the advantage of
the slow learners because they are able to learn from their friends...
it is really helping pupils to share more ideas, including those who used to be idle. They are able to participate now… It is helping every child in the class… So to me this is an advantage I have gained.”

Judith, interview

Follow-up task:
Planning a mixed pace group work with ICT task
Differentiation by task instead of by group Video of workshop talk Workshop discussion
Some pace grouping issues raised
challenge of devising several tasks – even harder with ICT
low achievers may be ridiculed
challenge of same tests for all learners Martha trialled collaborative writing with Etherpad using netbooks PORTFOLIOS: Talking Points "Learners are able to discuss, argue and agree in their groups…The analytical point of view is important." (Aggie)

"Talking points also makes the learners be more attentive to hear the reasoning…within the group, and the teacher will learn more from pupils." (Agness)

However, some groups “had problems when giving reasons due to language problems.” (Mirriam) "Etherpad is a software [where] learners are able to see what others are thinking in their typing.”

9 groups of 4, one for each province of Zambia, recording tribes found in that province

“Learners share information through typing and reading from one another’s work. It is a motivator to the learners since they compete in typing. No group wants to be behind.

It also encourages learners to work as a group and support each other. This technique builds oneness in a lesson.” purposeful, relevant, applied? leadership for learning focus on participation
and learning of
ALL students
Full transcript