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Irrigation types, what they are, pros and cons, locatoins.
Transcript of Irrigation types, what they are, pros and cons, locatoins.
By Chris Torres and Kaitlin Landen
Center Pivot Irrigation
Center pivot irrigation, also called waterwheel and circle irrigation, is where equipment rotates on a pivot point and waters crops with sprinkles. The circular area centered around the pivot is irrigated, creating a circle of crops, or crop circle.
Pros: conserves water, less labor intensive than other techniques, reduced labor costs, reduce soil tillage and water run off.
Cons: Rates of extraction by irrigation exceeds rate of recharge, causing ground water levels to drop dramatically, wells dry, fertile plains turn to dust.
center pivot irrigation
Gravity Flow Irrigation.
A Gravity Flow irrigation system uses soil borders, furrows, or ditches in order to allow gravity to distribute water across fields.
The system is in use, for example, in parts of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, and in desert areas like the Sahara and the Middle East.
Pros: Cheap, easy to create, does the job it needs to do, chiseling, furrow diking, and land leveling, things used to improve the system, allow the land to absorb water more efficiently and results in less waste.
Cons: can result in up to fifty percent water loss due to evaporation, increases run off, inefficiencies in water delivery to crop-root zone. water logging, deep drainage issues and salinization.
Location: western Unnited States
Gravity Flow Irrigation
In drip Irrigation, water is sent through plastic pipes (with holes in them) that are either laid along the rows of crops or even buried along their rootlines( or where the plants roots have spread to).
Pros: when irrigating fruits and vegetables this method is more efficient than flood irrigation(gravity flow), evaporation is cut way down and 1/4 water is saved compared to flood/gravity irrigation.
Cons: improper installation results in improper root development and dieback, requires periodic flushing to remove minerals, needs to be staked down to prevent accidental falls and tripping.
Location: In all of the US, there is a total of about 28,300 thousand acres with drip/microirrigation system.