Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Climate

No description
by

Katharine Onofryton

on 5 October 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Climate

Climate
and
NW Atlantic Ecosystems

Arctic Oscillation
(AO)
Has 2 phases:
positive
and
negative
POSITIVE
for most of 1900's
Controls cool air reaching mid-latitudes
Affects sea level pressure
Organizes upper-ocean circulation patterns
Controls freshwater export to the N. Atlantic
Cyclones and Pressure
Salinity Anomaly
Positive AO
Negative AO
Reproduction
North Atlantic
Right Whale

Calanus finmarchicus
C. finmarchicus
Super abundant zooplankton in N. Atlantic
Diet: diatoms, dinoflagellates, and microplanktonic organisms
Predators: cod, herring, N. right whales, among others
Dominates secondary production
Importance
Shows rapid response to climate change
Shifts in distribution and abundance
Variations in the timing of life history events
Changes in trophic relationships
History
During last ice age, C. finmarchicus migrated North
Hibernate for 6 months, at a depth of 500-2500m
During other half of the year, undergo 2-3 generations
Ability to survive long periods with little food
Even with little food, maintain ratio of ATP:C and rates of egg production
C. finmarchicus
Negative NAO
1996
1983
C. finmarchicus decline
Early 1990's
C. finmarchicus decline
Top-Down Review
Higher trophic level alterations have a trickle down effect
Cod eat C. finmarchicus
Climate Review
AO: positive (stable JS) and negative (meandering JS)
NAO: positive (stable) and negative (meandering)
CSWS: minimum (fw penetrates to MAB) and maximum (fw stays N)
Cyclone (export fw) and Anticyclones (store fw)
Effect on C. finmarchicus
Discussion
Bottom Up?
Top Down?
North Atlantic Oscillation
(NAO)
Schematic showing the strong westward penetration of LSW and northward position of the Gulf Stream following low winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index (left) and weak penetration of LSW and more southward position of Gulf Stream following high winter NAO index. (Drinkwater et al, 2003)
Regional subset of the AO
Has
positive
and
negative
phase
Usually in phase with the AO
Unclear whether something different than AO
Possibly due to
Climate change
Increase in ocean heat content
Positive
phase for past 25 years.
©Frank Gromling
Freshwater Export
Dr. Jeff Masters
1990
1995
2005
2000
1985
1980
1998-1999
C. finmarchicus decline
2000
C. finmarchicus increase
Mid 1990's
C. finmarchicus increase
Calving, Calanus, NAO
Distribution
University of New England
Early-mid 1990's
Whale Calving Rates Decline
1997-1998
Whale Calving Rates double
1998 and 2000
Whale Calving Rates Major Decline
2001
Whale Calving Rates Record High
Right Whales
Currents
Negative NAO
1987
Negative NAO
1985
CSWS Minimum
1987
CSWS Minimum
1989
CSWS Minimum
1997
Brümmer, Burghard. "Cyclones over Fram Strait: Impact on Sea Ice and Variability." Polar Research 20.2 (2001): 147-52. Web.
Cohen, Judah, and Mathew Barlow. "The NAO, the AO, and Global Warming: How Closely Related?" Journal of Climate 18 (2005): n. pag. Web.
Dale, T. "Large-scale Oceanic Distribution and Population Structure of Calanus Finmarchicus, in Relation to Physical Environment, Food and Predators." Marine Biology 139 (2001): 561-74. Web.
Greene, Charles. "Impact of Climate Variability on the Rocovery of Endangered North Atlantic Right Whales." Oceanography 16.4 (2003): n. pag. Web.
*Journal and technical notes*
Greene, Charles H. "Remore Climate Forcing of Decadal-scale Regime Shifts in Northwest Atlantic Shelf Ecosystems." Limnology and Oceanography 58.3 (2013): 803-16. Web.
Hjollo, Solfrid S., ed. Norwegian Ocean Climate Project. Geophysical Institude, Feb. 2002. Web. 30 Sept. 2013.
Jahn, Alexandra. "Arctic Freshwater Export Variability: A Model Study." 17th International Northern Research Basins Symposium (2009): n. pag. McGill University. Web.
Kuhlbrodt, Till. "An Integrated Assessment of Changes in the Thermohaline Circulation." Climate Change 96 (2009): 489-537. Web.
MERCINA Working Group. 2012. Recent Arctic climate change and its remote forcing of Northwest Atlantic shelf ecosystems. Oceanography 25(3):208–213, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670oceanog.2012.64.
National Marine Fisheries Service, comp. "North Atlantic Right Whale: Western Atlantic Stock." (2012): n. pag. Web.
Proshutinsky, A. Y., and M. A. Johnson. "Two Circulation Regimes of the Wind-driven Arctic Ocean." Journal of Geophysical Research 6th ser. 102.C (1997): 12493-2514. Web.
Walters, Carl, and Jean-Jacques Maguire. "Lessons for Stock Assessment from the Northern Cod Collapse." Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 6 (1996): 125-137. Web.
References
Keep in mind....
1992
Cod Stocks Fall to 1%
Loss of cod, caused massive increase in populations of copepods
This probably caused expansion in biomass at first
However, as time went on, and climate changed, these copepods declined
1 year for
Gestation
Northern Right Whale Reproductive Cycle
1 year for
Nursing
1 year for
Recovery
Repeat until Adequate Food
Lifespan: ~50 years
Reproduction begins at age 9 or 10
Good feeding conditions:1 calf every 3 years
Poor feeding conditions: 1 calf every 6+ years
Greene et al. 2003
Greene et al. 2003
Population Size
1935: possibly less than 100
1992: 295
1996: 263
1998: 299
2009: 444
5-17 calves born each year
Physiology
Atmospheric Pressure and
Sea Surface Height
Northern Right Whale
C. Finmarchicus
After min to max shift in CSWS, plankton declines
Greene et al. 2003
Seal
Cod
Small Copepods
Young Cod
Herring
Food abundance
Ship Strikes
Entanglements
Salinity decreases as freshwater flux increases
thermocline stabilizes
phytoplankton able to photosynthesize longer into the fall and winter
populations of C. finmarchicus and other copepods decrease
Anticyclonic Circulation: Responsible for freshwater storage in Beaufort Gyre
Cyclonic Circulation: increases freshwater export into North Atlantic
1991 and 1994 anomalies: weak
positive
phase

Positive NAO
Negative NAO
Anticyclone
Cyclone
Bluefin Tuna
Phytoplankton
Mackerel
Red Fish
http://www.listenforwhales.org/page.aspx?pid=451
History
Whaling: thick blubber, lots of oils
"Right" whales to hunt
Float after death
Before 1712, they were the only "catchable" whales
Began commercial exploit in 11th century
Whaling banned in 1937
Whaling
Reproduction
Climate Change
Greene et al. 2012
The Olympic Rings of Review and Summary
NAO is
negative
+ CSWS minimum
After switch,
C. finmarchicus declines
N. Atlantic right whales decline
Do you think just looking at C. finmarchicus populations is an accurate method of explaining and predicting Northern Right Whale calving rates?
Min:
Max:
What do you think will happen to the Northern Right Whale populations if the NAO goes into an extended negative phase?
Minimum CSWS

Maximum CSWS
Full transcript