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Animation

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Gemma Howard

on 26 October 2012

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Transcript of Animation

By Gemma Haxell
&
Gemma Howard Evolution of Animation Persistence of
Vision A commonly accepted but controversial theory which states that the human eye retains images for a fraction of a second. Meaning everything we see is a subtle blend of what is happening now and what happened a second ago.

In terms of film, it means that the images we see are many different frames that our eyes blend together to create a continuous moving image.

The human visual system can process 10 to 12 separate images per second, seeing them individually. Each image is held onto for about one-fifteenth of a second, so as another image is processed the brain creates a series of images, called an 'illusion of continuity'. This allows the sequence to give the effect of movement. Persistence of Vision is important to animation because it gives the illusion of movement rather than seeing a series of still images, you can see a continuous film. William Horner – Zoetrope Thomas Edison – Kinetoscope Stop Frame
Animation Also known as Stop Motion

An animation technique to make a physically manipulated object appear to move on its own. The object is moved in small movements between individually photographed frames. This creates the illusion of movement when the series of frames is played as a continuous sequence. Can be done with any object, mostly done with doll's or clay models as joints can be moved easily to reposition for the next frame.

Stop motion using clay or plasticine is often called "clay animation". Examples of stop motion animation at...
http://ww2.samshingmagazine.com/2008/12/31/50-incredible-stop-motion-videos/ The Creators Joseph Plateau – Phenakitoscope Emile Reynaud – Praxinoscope Edward Muybridge – Zoopraxiscope Also know as "frame frequency" Is the rate at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called frames. Most often expressed in frames per second (FPS). Frame Rate
His full name was Joseph Antoine Ferdinand plateau. He was born on the 14th October 1801 in Brussels, Belgium, he died 15th September 1883 in Ghent, Belgium.

Joseph Plateau's father was an artistic man. He wanted Joseph to follow an artistic career and his schooling was arranged with this aim. He was sent to the Academy of Fine Arts. However Joseph became an orphan at the age of fourteen when his father died, his mother having died one year earlier.

A brother of Joseph's mother who was a lawyer, a M Thirion, took over bringing up Joseph and his two sisters.
Once he had recovered from an illness he resumed his course.
Plateau entered the Athenaeum in Brussels in 1817 to complete his secondary education. The Creators The Creators The Creators The Creators George Melies Emile Cohl Winsor McCay Ladislaw Starewicz Walt Disney Analysis of an Animated Advert Task 1 b,
The advert we have picked is a coca cola advert made in 2009. Creative directors Todd Mueller and Kylie Matulick created it, director of photography was Stephen Blackman, and executive producer was Neysa Horsburgh, Music and sound were designed at Stimmung, and where mixed at Lime Studios. The music was from Peter and the Wolf, and was conducted by Robert Miller and performed by the Los Angeles Philharmonic. The senior animator was Yvain Gnabro. And the animators were: Alejandro Castro, Joon Lee, Frantz Vidal, Maxime Devanlay, and Zee Myers. After accidently stumbling upon the stopmotion technique by his camera jamming, George Melies set a new trend in filming, a new form of animation was founded, this would prove to be a very important discovery in the film industry. When George Melies looked back at one of his pieces of work he realised that when the camera had jammed it had created a jump in time and space, instead of discarding the reel, he decided to use this mistake to his advantage. Melies relised that you could manipulate objects, by distorting time and space, with the camera. Objects could be made to disappear and re-appear, also they could be transformed into another object/ person. 'A Trip To The Moon'
1902 George Melies The Smashing Pumpkins - Tonight, Tonight
1966 Jonathan Dayton,
Valerie Faris Jonathan Dayton and Valerie Faris, a married couple who directed many well known works from music videos to documentarys and hit TV series. they re-created George Melies vision 'La Voyage dans la Lune' to create this award winning music video in 1996, using the same techniques that were used in 1902. Emile Cohl is considered the first artist to create a fully animated film. His film 'Fantasmargorie' (1908) was one of many he made, but this film was what got his work recognised. He made over 250 films working for different companies including Pathé, Gaumont and others. Cohl originally worked as a writer, but between the 1880s and 1890s managed to establish himself as a Writer, Cartoonist and Caricaturist. He worked with drawings, cutouts, puppets and other media to create his films. when he created 'fantasmargorie' he used drawings. to make this animation he used around 700 pieces of paper to slowly make each character/ object move smoothly, each piece was photographed separately and then put together to create a series of moving images. 'Fantasmagorie'
1908 Emile Cohl Chicken Dance Animator vs Animation
2010 eColour Studio In 1822 Plateau graduated from the Athenaeum having achieved outstanding success. His tutor advised him to study literature and philosophy at the University of Liège, with the aim of going on to study law.
Of course his guardian was a lawyer so law was in some ways a natural choice. However, although Plateau had shown great ability in these subjects, they were not the ones which interested him.
He felt he had to so he obtained a bachelor's degree in literature and philosophy and then a bachelor's degree in law. He had already decided that he would complete this course but then study the subjects which he really loved. So he soon started courses in mathematics and physics at the University of Liège. Later on in life health problems meant he was forced to resign from his teaching position at the Athenaeum in Liège and he moved to Brussels where he soon was given the position of professor in a College run by M Gaggia. He was highly successful in his career. On 27 August 1840 he married Augustine- Thérèse- Fanny Clavareau; they had two sons Félix and Ernest, and a daughter Alice. In fact 1840 was important for another reason for Plateau, for in that year he first began experiments.

He discovered that by observing a periodically moving object through a hole in a rotating disk, it was possible to make the object appear stationary by rotating the disk at a suitable speed. Of course this is the principle which underlies all viewing of moving pictures. The next work he published on the topic of vision related to the mechanism by which eye retains an impression of a colored object in the complementary color.

The starting point for this investigation was in 1840 when a servant spilt oil into a container filled with a mixture of water and alcohol. Plateau noticed that the drops of oil formed into perfect spheres in the mixture. He then carried out a series of experiments repeating the original accident. Plateau received many honors. For example he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Belgium Academy of Science (Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux Arts) on 15 April 1834 and was elected a full member on 15 December 1836. Although Plateau had carried out his experiment of staring at the sun in 1829, he had retained reasonable vision until 1841. In that year he began to suffer with inflammation of his eyes. So he began treatment, during the following two years was ineffective and by 1843 he had become totally blind
Despite now being unable to teach because of his blindness, Plateau was made a full professor at the University of Ghent on 29 June 1844. William George Horner
Born 1786 in Bristol, England and died 22nd September 1837 in bath, England. William junior (because his father was also called William), was educated at Kingswood School Bristol. At the almost unbelievable age of 14 he became an assistant master at Kingswood school in 1800 and headmaster four years later. He left Bristol and founded his own school in 1809; The Seminary at 27 Grosvenor Place in Bath.
Horner is largely remembered only for the method, Horner's method, of solving algebraic equations ascribed to him by Augustus De Morgan and others.
Then in 1833 the modern zoetrope was invented. He called it the "daedalum", most likely as a reference to the Greek myth of Daedalus, though it was popularly referred to as "the wheel of the devil". The daedalum failed to become popular until the 1860s Neither the date of Horner's marriage nor the name of the woman he married are known, but it is recorded that they had several children. After Horner died in his home in Grosvenor Place, Bath, of a stroke in 1837, one of his sons, also called William, carried on running the school The Seminary in Bath. His father was a watchmaker, his mother a schoolteacher. He was taught by his parents, and they believed he should learn whilst having fun. When his father died, him and his mother both left Paris for Puy-en-Velay. He became a professor of physics and natural sciences, and taught from 1873 to 1877. During this time he invented the "praxinoscope" which is an instrument that creates optical illusions. He returned to Paris with the invention, and it was a success. He perfected the "praxinoscope" and came up with a large praxinoscope which enabled him to project a strip of film. He hand drew his cartoons onto film paper, which he then projected to audiences. The first of these shown for the first time on 28th of October, 1892. These were called luminous pantomimes. He continued to perfect his instrument and created the stereo-cinema which enabled a 3-D animation. He died on January 9th, 1918 in Ivry-sur-Seine. His father was a watchmaker, his mother a schoolteacher. He was taught by his parents, and they believed he should learn whilst having fun. When his father died, him and his mother both left Paris for Puy-en-Velay. He became a professor of physics and natural sciences, and taught from 1873 to 1877. During this time he invented the "praxinoscope" which is an instrument that creates optical illusions. He returned to Paris with the invention, and it was a success. He perfected the "praxinoscope" and came up with a large praxinoscope which enabled him to project a strip of film. He hand drew his cartoons onto film paper, which he then projected to audiences. The first of these shown for the first time on 28th of October, 1892. These were called luminous pantomimes. He continued to perfect his instrument and created the stereo-cinema which enabled a 3-D animation. He died on January 9th, 1918 in Ivry-sur-Seine. After his convalescence, Muybridge returned to San Francisco and took up photography full-time. Under the pseudonym "Helios," he set out to record the scenery of the west with his mobile darkroom. He produced a wide array of panoramic landscape photographs, most famously of Yosemite Valley, and traveled to Alaska to photograph the Tlingit people.
As Muybridge's reputation as a photographer grew in the late 1800s, former California Governor Leland Stanford contacted him to help settle a bet. Speculation raged for years over whether all four hooves of a running horse left the ground. Stanford believed they did, but the motion was too fast for human eyes to detect. In 1872, Muybridge began experimenting with an array of 12 cameras photographing a galloping horse in a sequence of shots. His initial efforts seemed to prove that Stanford was right, but he didn’t have the process perfected.
Between 1878 and 1884, Muybridge perfected his method of horses in motion, proving that they do have all four hooves off the ground during their running stride.
Muybridge worked at the University of Pennsylvania between 1883 and 1886, producing thousands of photographs of humans and animals in motion. During the remaining years of his life, he published several books featuring his motion photographs and toured Europe and North America, presenting his photographic methods using a projection device he'd developed, the Zoopraxiscope. Thomas Alva Edison was born on February 11th 1847, and died on October 18th 1931. He was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. Dubbed "The Wizard of Menlo Park" (now Edison, New Jersey) by a newspaper reporter, he was one of the first inventors to apply the principles of mass production and large-scale teamwork to the process of invention, and because of that, he is often credited with the creation of the first industrial research laboratory.His advanced work in these fields was an outgrowth of his early career as a telegraph operator. Edison originated the concept and implementation of electric-power generation and distribution to homes, businesses, and factories – a crucial development in the modern industrialized world. His first power station was on Manhattan Island, New York. The Phenakitoscope was significant to the development of moving images because it was the first real step forward in the development of film making, it is were it all truley began, without this first step the designs of the following mechansims may have been very diffrent and may not of worked as well. Phenakitoscope –The Phenakistoscope had two discs mounted on the same axis. The first disc had slots around the edge, and the second contained drawings of an evolving action,drawn around the disc in concentric (common centered) circles. Unlike Faraday's Wheel, whose pair of discs spun in opposite directions, a Phenakitoscope's discs spin together in the same direction. When viewed in a mirror through the first disc's slots, the pictures on the second disc will appear to move. After finding that the lights in his studio would evetually leave the insects deceased, Ladislaw began to experiment with detailed models, leading his work towards puppetry. By having these puppets he could manipulate them in anyway that he liked . Rejecting the offers from the likes of Hollywood, Starewicz set up a small studio on the poutskirts of Paris, France. there he created many of his films, he would get help from his family to create the costumes for the puppets, sometimes he would include the faces of his family in the bacjgrounds of some of his works. Ladislaw Starewicz The Cameramans Revenge (1912) For many years Winsor worked as a portait artist at Wonderland in Detroit, where he would earn 25¢ per portrait. After doing different jobs over the years McKay created 'Gertie the Dinosaur', a projection of the animation was shown whilst Winsor was performing a carefully choreographed scene, at one point he even joined Gertie in the animation for the finale. Many people could relate to the dinosaur as the character was so realistic, this made the animation even more popluar. Winsor McKay made it possible for the audience to empathis with an animated charcrter, this has helped many artists since, be able to create the same effect when prodcuing animations, even in recent years many people have used his work as an inspiration, and have created the same effect. 'Gertie The Dinosaur'
(1914) Winsor McKay Graham Ralph
(2005) Harry and his Bucket full of Dinosaurs William Horner – Zoetrope The Creators William George Horner
Born 1786 in Bristol, England and died 22nd September 1837 in bath, England. William junior (because his father was also called William), was educated at Kingswood School Bristol. At the almost unbelievable age of 14 he became an assistant master at Kingswood school in 1800 and headmaster four years later. He left Bristol and founded his own school in 1809; The Seminary at 27 Grosvenor Place in Bath.
Horner is largely remembered only for the method, Horner's method, of solving algebraic equations ascribed to him by Augustus De Morgan and others.
Then in 1833 the modern zoetrope was invented. He called it the "daedalum", most likely as a reference to the Greek myth of Daedalus, though it was popularly referred to as "the wheel of the devil". The daedalum failed to become popular until the 1860s Neither the date of Horner's marriage nor the name of the woman he married are known, but it is recorded that they had several children. After Horner died in his home in Grosvenor Place, Bath, of a stroke in 1837, one of his sons, also called William, carried on running the school The Seminary in Bath. Zoetrope
The zoetrope works by spinning the drum, the faster it is spun the more smooth the image is. A person can look through the zoetrope at any point and see the moving images. And because of this design of a person being able to look in at more than one point it meant that more than one person could watch at the same time. The Zoetrope was very significant to the development of moving images because it had created multiple viewing, which has led to cinemas where more than one person can watch a film together. Praxinoscope
There is a band of pictures placed on the bottom rim of an outer cylinder and then the image is reflected onto mirrors on the inner cylinder (then number of mirrors is equal to the number of images), then when the cylinders are spun you can see the reflection of the images and they appear to be moving. The Praxinoscope is significant because it was apart of the refining process of the mechanism, which created moving pictures. It did so by adding in mirrors to the mechanism,this was a new creative way to help make the pictures appear smoother. Zoopraxiscope The zoopraxiscope is a disk that is mounted onto a handle vertically and spun, of course like the others it has specific pictures draw onto it so that it shows the moving images in the right order so it looks like the image is progressing through time. People can spin the device and see the reflection in a mirror, instead of multiple mirrors like the Praxinoscope. The Zoopraxiscope is important to the history of filmaking because instead of using multiple mirrors which the Praxinoscope did it only used one mirror which of course would have been cheaper so more could have been made, but also this simplified the mechanism to make it easier to make which would mean that more businesses would be open to taking on the making process. Kinetoscope The Kinetoscope was the next big step in filming; it was the next big step because it used electricity. How it worked was there was a lens then a real of film (pictures draw on a strip of paper) and then behind that there was an electric light bulb and then the viewer would look through the peephole to watch the images that where being spun. With the spinner though there was narrow silt that was like a shutter. This was the beginning of the images per second theory as it showed 46 frames passing in front of the shutter every second. The most important principle of animation is squash and stretch, this is because it give the audience asense of movement in many ways, also it can show the weight height and characteristics of the character. The Kinetoscope was a major significance to developing film because it was the first ever mechanism to use electricity, now of course it is nothing like the modern day DVD player but back in those days it would have been that time periods DVD player. If it had not of introduced using electricity into this device then cinemas and seeing movies would be very different to day as there most likely wouldn’t be a cinema or picture house because that uses a projector, which of course uses electric lighting equipment. A, Explain the type of animation used.
The type of animation used is a mixture of special effects and CGI computer generated imagery); this is a type of animation done on a computer. It is created by drawing onto a pad like device, which appears on screen so the animator can draw his or her designs into the computer. Then by using a series of computer programs and hours of work they create the animation. B, Why do you think they used this approach? How does the style suit the programme, the needs of the producers and its audience?
I think they used this CGI style because it looks realistic. They used this approach because even though people know that this is impossible, because it looks so realistic it makes us think that it is happening which gives the audience a sense of wonder, and makes them use their imagination. For some reason making the impossible happen has always made human beings happy I think this is why this style was used. C, Looking at part a, how has this been influenced by other animations and what are the origins of this type of animation?
This animated advert has been influenced by many different CGI adverts for example it could have been influenced by the Transformers New Citroen C4 Car advert.

I think this because if you look at the special effects the way they add in the light shining of the car and the realistic spray off the skates, it’s a type of CGI that looks so realistic you can barley tell whether it is real or not. Another example is the Thomson Holidays advert. I think that this advert could have inspired them because once again the realism in this advert is so good, like the clouds you couldn’t tell that they where CGI at all. Also it uses a slight cheek as does the coca cola advert does. This is because in the coca cola advert the bugs sneakily steal the coke from the guy and replace it with butterflies that fly away which most of the audience will find funny because it is something unexpected and looks like that bugs can out smart him. In the Thomson Holiday advert they will remove things like a random crab or a gray cloud which some how has a slight cheek to it because of the way they do it like its so easy which some how adds a comedy feel to the advert. THE END. =) Squash and stretch makes an object look more realistic. In the 1930s the Disney animators discovered that to make their characters more realistic and believable. The first experiment they had with using the squash and stretch was with a bouncy ball. they figured that the ball compresses (squashed) when in contact with the ground, the releases and stretches when it bounces upwards. they then found that if they used this technique wen animating that they can make their objects and characters look more life-like.
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