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Management: an overview
Transcript of Management: an overview
An overview Efficiency
Doing the thing correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people Effectiveness
Doing the right things; goal attainment the process of working with and through
others to achieve organisational objectives
in a changing environment Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities Planning Organising Includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made Leading Includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts Controlling The process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any significant deviations Management as a
specialist occupation Behaviours related to a manager’s effectiveness: Management as a
general human activity Controlling the organisation’s environment and its resources.
Organising and coordinating.
Providing for growth and development.
Motivating employees and handling conflicts.
Strategic problem solving Management, then, is concerned with how profits or wealth is created through the collaboration of people and machines. three specific categorization schemes to explain what managers do
Roles (Henry Mintzberg) Skills (Robert L. Katz) Functions (Henry Fayol) Interpersonal Roles
Liaison Informational Roles
Spokesperson Decisional Roles
Negotiator The Nature of Managerial Work 1973 their activities also include
reflection and action The ones that, like the name suggests, involve people and other ceremonial duties. collecting, receiving, and disseminating information. Roles that revolve around making choices. forecasting and planning
controlling (feedback) Technical skills Conceptual skills Human skills abilities that are necessary to carry out a specific task. ability to work with, motivate, and direct individuals or groups in the organization ability to understand the degree of complexity in a given situation and to reduce that complexity to a level at which specific courses of action can be derived. What do you think "management" means? Think of a situation where someone managed an activity What did they do? What types of activities did they do? Wealth of the Nations Adam Smith http://www.amazon.co.uk/Inquiry-Nature-Causes-Nations-ebook/dp/B000JQUA6E/ref=sr_1_1?s=digital-text&ie=UTF8&qid=1329494636&sr=1-1 division of labor Increased productivity by increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity.
Time saved that is commonly lost in changing tasks.
The creation of labor-saving inventions and machinery. Specialization of the labor force,
breaking down large jobs into many tiny components Assembly line technology allows a worker to focus attention on one small part of the production process. Smith also saw the potential problems of this development. He pointed out that performing mundane and repetitious tasks would lead to an ignorant, dissatisfied work force.
For this reason he advanced the revolutionary belief that governments had an obligation to provide education to workers. Division of labor also implies assigning each worker to the job that suits him best. Productive labor fulfills two important requirements.
First, it must "lead to the production of tangible objects."
Second, labor must "create a surplus" which can be reinvested into production. 1776 Frederick Taylor Management is a true science. The solution to the problem of determining fair work standards and practices could be discovered by experimentation and observation. From this, it follows, that there is "one right way" for work to be performed. The selection of workers is a science. Taylor's "first class worker" was someone suitable for the job.
It was management's role to determine the kind of work for which an employee was most suited, and to hire and assign workers accordingly. Workers are to be developed and trained.
It is management's task to not only engineer a job that can be performed efficiently, but management is responsible for training the worker as to how the work is to be performed and for updating practices as better ones are developed.
This standardizes how the work is performed in the best way. Scientific management is a collaboration of workers and managers. Managers are not responsible for execution of work, but they are responsible for how the work is done. Planning, scheduling, methods, and training are functions of the manager. 1 2 3 4 Scientific management management is firmly established as something done by trained, professional practitioners and is elevated as the subject of legitimate scholarship. task allocation
a job would be sub-divided it into discrete tasks,
each element of the job would be investigated to discern the optimal efficiency by which it could be accomplished.
The elements of the job, properly designed, then, would be reconstructed as an efficient job. The criticism of this approach is that it omits the worker's own contribution to the design of work and, thereby, alienates the worker from the job 1903 Frank and Lillian Gilbreth efficiency experts scientific management as formulated by Taylor fell short when it came to managing the human element on the shop floor Lillian was instrumental in the development of the modern kitchen, creating the "work triangle" and linear kitchen layouts that are often used today Time and Motion studies Frank, who began his working life as a bricklayer, closely observed the ways in which different men performed the task and came to conclusions about the most efficient way workplace psychology Studied hand movement 1. Reduce the number of motions in a task to increase efficiency.
2. Focus on the incremental study of motions and time to understand an entire task.
3. The goal of increased efficiency is both increased profit and greater worker satisfaction. effects of stress and lack of sleep on the worker 1912 What assumptions did Frederick Taylor and Lillian Gilbreth make about the interests and abilities of industrial workers? Activity General Administrative Theorists Henri Fayol Max Weber 14 fundamental or universal principles
of management practice Ideal type of organisation characterized by
division of labour,
a clearly defined hierarchy,
detailed rules and regulations,
and impersonal relationships Rules and regulations: to guide behaviour Division of Work –
Unity of Command –
Unity of Direction –
Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest –
Scalar Chain –
Stability of Tenure of Personnel –
Esprit de Corps – Fayol's Six Functions of Management
Fayol's six primary functions of management, which go hand in hand with the Principles, are as follows:
Controlling. 1930-1950 Bureaucratic Management managers should use most efficient methods to achieve objectives Conditions change more quickly than rules
Units of an organisation face different conditions
Rules may become more important than adding value: become an end in themselves Classical Theories Modern Theories Process Approach
Planning, leading, and controlling activities are circular and continuous functions of management The Systems Approach The Contingency Approach Focus on links with the outside world on which firm depends a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole Influenced many management practices which stress response to external conditions Focus on the interrelationships, not the elements of the system. Four Contingency Variables Organisation size (coordination) Routineness of task technology (task complexity dictates structure) Environmental uncertainty (change management) Individual differences (managerial styles, motivational techniques, and job design) managers must adapt the structure of the organisation to match external environment Need to cope with uncertainty and change the contingency theory suggests that what managers do in practice depends on, or is contingent upon, a given set of circumstances - a situation. Resource Based View This theory formulates the firm to be a bundle of resources.
It is these resources and the way that they are combined,
which make firms different from one another. VRIN The diversity of approaches to the study of management—functions, quantitative emphasis, human relations approaches—each offer something to management theory, but many are only managerial tools. Management Theory Jungle (Harold Koontz)
The Quantitative Approaches
World War II armament production Classical Approach
The desire for increased efficiency of labor intensive operations Human Resources Approach
The backlash to the overly mechanistic view of employees held by the classicists.
The Great Depression. use of statistics, optimisation models, information models, and computer simulations to improve management decision making for planning and control. belief in the importance of employee satisfaction—a satisfied worker was believed to be a productive worker