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Creativity & Motivation
Transcript of Creativity & Motivation
Did your creative luminary experience competition with another luminary?
Are creative geniuses born or made?
Are rewards detrimental or helpful to creative performance? Questions Types of Motivation Intrinsic
Extrinsic Definition: the motivation to engage in a task for its own sake
Crucial to creativity & favored by evolution
The flow of creativity: 9 main elements of enjoyable experience
Examples of intrinsic motivation Intrinsic Motivation Definition: the motivation to do something
for some external goal, a goal outside of the task itself
and more! Extrinsic Motivation Types of Motivation: Intrinsic Clydesdale: suggests a distinction between creativity and innovation
Both intrinsic & extrinsic play a role in determining creativity
- Amabile: Intrinsic Motivation Principle of Creativity
- In some cases, synergistic extrinsic motivators
- Dependent upon individual orientation,
personality characteristics, specific task, qualities of the environment How do intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
influence creativity? self-determination
Specific Conditions Self-Determination Theory (SDT) (Developed from Cognitive Evaluation Theory)
- Cognitive effort is not inherently aversive, but can be made so by limiting the individual's ability to meet their fundamental psychological needs (autonomy, competence, relatedness)
- Intrinsic motivation plays a key role in determining creative performance
- Empirical support:
- Good Player Awards (Lepper et al. 1973)
- Reward prior to task (Amabile, Hennessey, & Grossman 1986)
- Robust effect across ages
- Not just reward: time limits and competition also undermine intrinsic task motivation and qualitative aspects of performance (Amabile, DeJong, Amabile 1982a; Amabile, Goldfarb, & Brackfield 1990) Behavioralist approaches emphasize evolution through classical conditioning processes.
Most behavioralists believe that properly applied rewards can help
fulfill human potential without decreasing intrinsic task interest (Eisenberger and Cameron).
Decremental effects of rewards that may be confused for a decrement in intrinsic motivation:
Learned helplessness Behavioralist Approaches - Origins in behavioralist approach:
Under the right conditions, rewards can increase rather than undermine intrinsic motivation
Provide behaviorally relevant information
Ameliorate the aversiveness of putting effort into a task
Guide goal-directed behavior
Increase creative performance
- Assumes that individuals learn which dimensions of performance are rewarded and adjust accordingly in subsequent tasks Learned Industriousness Theory (LIT) Creativity-Contingent
Rewards Byron & Khazanchi
Performance-Contingent Rewards Completion-Contingent Rewards Personality
& Motivation - Affect
- Skill levels
- Motivational Orientation (Feedback)
Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as mediating and moderating the relationship between personality traits and creativity (Prabhu, Sutton, & Sauser 2008)
Example: openness to experience, self-efficacy, perseverance CASE STUDIES Between John Lennon and Paul McCartney:
McCartney: "It was very friendly competition because we were both going to share in the rewards anyway. But, it was real... It really helped step.. so we were getting better and better and better all the time."
Between The Beatles and The Beach Boys:
Wilson: "I was depressed, really low.. There was just one way to get over that depression. I had to create a new song. I had to look beyond what I had already done, beyond the horizon, and find something new and better than anything I'd done before." Competition Audrey Young & Jeanette Schnierle Eisenberger and Cameron:
"Detrimental Effects of Reward"
Conclusions Detrimental effects of reward on creative performance occur under highly restricted conditions.
Rewards for high levels of creative performance have the potential to increase generalized creativity. Competition is detrimental to creativity and intrinsic motivation
According to Amabile Specific Conditions