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Genetics and Punnet Square
Transcript of Genetics and Punnet Square
-Each sex cell(egg or sperm) carries 1/2 of the off springs genetic material.
-Heredity (inheritance) is the passing of traits from one generation to another. Chromosomes -A chromosome is a structure found in the nucleus of a cell that contains the genetic information(DNA) Genes -A gene is a segment of DNA found on a chromosome that determines the inheritance of a certain trait.
-They come in pairs
-1 gene from the pair is called allele
- Genes may be expressed in two different forms:
- Genotype- the set of genes carried by the organism.
- Phenotype- The physical expression of the genes. Inherited traits -Inherited Trait is characteristics that are passed on from parent to offspring.
-There are also two types of Inherited Traits.
-Dominant Trait-will always be expressed in the phenotype; the physical traits. The alleles will always be in capital letters.
- Recessive Trait- will always be expressed in the phenotype if two recessive alleles are present. Alleles will always be shown in lower case letters. They will not be expressed when the dominant trait is also there. Examples. Hair Type.
-Curly hair is a dominant trait.
- Straight hair is a recessive trait.
- Blue eyes are a recessive trait.
- Brown eyes are a dominant trait. Punnet Squares -How to set up a punnet square.
1. The top of the table shows the alleles of one parent.
2. The alleles for the other parent are placed on the left side of the table.
3. One allele form each parent is places in the individual squares forming a new gene pair.
4. The individual squares show the possibilities if allele pairs in the off spring. Examples ___T________T_______
| | |
t | Tt | Tt |
| | |
t | Tt | Tt |
In this example T is the dominant trait, and t is the recessive.
The offspring has a 100% chance of having the dominant trait, over the recessive. Science Technology Junk The two types of pairs are :
1. Homozygous (purebred)- the alleles are the same (TT or tt)
2. Heterozygous(hybrid)- the alleles are different.(Tt)