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IGCSE Physical Education 2.5 - Exercise & Training

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by

Andrew Perry

on 28 May 2014

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Transcript of IGCSE Physical Education 2.5 - Exercise & Training

What is it?
Performing a series of exercises (8 – 15 stations).
Designed to avoid training the same muscle groups consecutively.
Made more difficult by increasing number of stations / time / repetitions / circuits.

Advantages?
Adaptable for different sports.
Can be changed into sports-specific skills circuits.
Less boring because it changes all the time.
Can be easily adapted for strength or endurance.

Disadvantages?
Takes a while to set up.
Takes a lot of equipment.
Circuit Training
What is it?
Alternating periods of exercise and rest.
Rest periods for recovery & to train longer.
Vary time / distance / intensity / type of rest / frequency.

Advantages?
Improve aerobic/anaerobic fitness to replicate team games.
Improve performance of games players.

Disadvantages?
It can be hard to keep going when you start to fatigue.
Can become boring.
Interval Training
What is it?
Many changes of speed.
Walking/running/cycling/skiing at different speeds/intensities.
Work for a minimum of 30mins.

Advantages?
Improve aerobic/anaerobic fitness (depends on training zone).
To help players who need both types aerobic & anaerobic.
Motivation for beginners.

Disadvantages?
Too easy to skip the hard sections.
Can be difficult to see how hard someone is trying.
Fartlek Training
HIGH-INTENSITY TRAINING
What is it?
Any whole body activity.
Work for a short period of time (↓30mins).
Work in the anaerobic training zone.

Advantages?
Improve anaerobic capacity.
Improve leg speed & strength, and muscular endurance.
Prepare for competition during season.

Disadvantages?
Can be boring.
Difficult to train the anaerobic capacity.
Continuous Training
LONG, SLOW, DISTANCE RUNNING
What is it?
Any whole body activity.
Work at same pace for 30mins - 2 hours.
Work in the aerobic training zone.

Advantages?
Improve stamina/aerobic capacity.
Improve health-related fitness.
Reduce body fat.
Maintain fitness in off-season.

Disadvantages?
Can be boring.
Continuous Training
Different training methods are applied to target specific areas that a person wants to improve, e.g. endurance, strength.

All based on different ways the body adapts to exercise.

Continuous Training

Fartlek Training

Interval Training

Circuit Training

Weight Training

Plyometric Training
Training Methods
We train to improve our performance but this has a limit.

Overtraining (too much training) can be bad for the athlete’s health.

The human body needs rest & sleep between training sessions.

Side effects:
Joint pain.
Loss of appetite.
Sleeping problems/Insomnia.
Extreme tiredness.

After injury/illness, the athlete must start training again only gradually.
Overtraining
S

Specificity
Sport-specific training.
P

Progression
Allow body systems to adapt to overload.
O

Overload
Training body systems harder than normal.
R

Reversibility
Effects of training decrease over time.
T

Tedium
Change training program to avoid boredom.
Principles of Training
Reversibility
Stop training = training effect will also stops!
(Muscle atrophy)

It gradually reduces at approximately one third of the rate of acquisition (depends on body system).

e.g. Strength train for 4 weeks = effects lost after 12 weeks of inactivity.
Aerobic fitness lost quicker – within 3-4 weeks.


Also important to remember...

Tedium
Training programme must be varied and interesting to avoid boredom.

e.g. Change training site.
Include friendly competition.
Work on different aspects of performance.
Personalised things to keep you happy!
Principles of Training
Overload
Pushing the body systems harder than normal.

e.g. Increase Frequency/Intensity/Duration.

Aerobic system gradually adapts to cope with the overload and will become fitter.

Progression = the rate of which the overload is applied

In other words, if you don’t apply some form of overload, the body systems will not progress.
Principles of Training
Specificity
Place regular stress on body systems that you want to develop for the specific sport.

e.g. Marathon runner: runs a minimum of 100 aerobic miles per week.


Progression
Gradually increase training performed to allow body systems to adapt.

e.g. Too quick an increase in training load = body has no time to adapt, which may result in injury.
Principles of Training
“Training is a regular programme of exercise
used to improve performance”

For steady progress and to avoid injury athletes should follow the SPOR principles:

S
pecificity
P
rogression
O
verload
R
eversibility
Training
Calculate the aerobic and anaerobic training zones for a 16 year old.

HRmax equation
= 220 - age
16 year old HRmax
= 220 - 16 = 204 BPM

60% HRmax
= 122 BPM

80% HRmax
= 163 BPM

100% HRmax
= 204 BPM

Aerobic training zone = 122 - 163 BPM

Anaerobic training zone = 163 - 204 BPM
Exercise Training Zones
Calculate the aerobic and anaerobic training zones for a 16 year old.

HRmax equation
= ?
16 year old HRmax
= ?

60% HRmax
= ?

80% HRmax
= ?

100% HRmax
= ?
Exercise Training Zones

Exercise Training Zones
Aerobic:

Train in the aerobic training zone to improve aerobic fitness.

Aerobic training zone = 60 ~ 80% HRmax

Must stay above the aerobic threshold to achieve this (60% HRmax).



Anaerobic:

Train in the anaerobic training zone to improve anaerobic fitness.

Anaerobic training zone = 80 ~ 100% HRmax

Must stay above the anaerobic threshold to achieve this (80% HRmax).

Exercise Training Zones
To train the energy systems, we must know:

Present level of fitness.

Amount of aerobic training needed for the specific sport.

Amount of anaerobic training needed for the specific sport.

Two methods of calculating fitness:


Maximum Aerobic Capacity
(
VO₂max
)


Maximum Heart Rate
(
HRmax
)
Training the energy systems
If lactic acid builds up in the muscle, the body becomes tired and muscular contractions become painful.

We cannot use the lactic acid system for very long (approximately 45-90 seconds of hard work).

After exercise has been completed we need to get rid of the lactic acid. To do this we need extra
oxygen
.

The amount of extra oxygen is called ............................


Lactic Acid System
PROVIDES SHORT TERM ENERGY!

After 10 seconds of hard work, the body’s stores of ATP & CP in our muscles are almost gone.


We begin to breath quicker and deeper to supply O₂ to the muscles to remake our ATP.


However, it takes some time for the O₂ to get into our bloodstream & to our working muscles.


In the meantime, the Lactic Acid System uses glycogen to remake ATP.

ATP

ENERGY FOR CONTRACTION + ADP

ADP

+ glycogen

ATP + pyruvic acid

Pyruvic acid without O₂


Lactic Acid
Lactic Acid System
However, we can remake ATP as we utilise our stores.

The body uses a chemical called
creatine phosphate
(CP), which is also stored in our body in small amounts.

The extra energy we gain from using up our creatine phosphate stores in our muscles can provide up to another 10 seconds of hard work.

ADP + CP

ATP + creatine

So about 10-15 seconds of hard work is possible
using the creatine phosphate system.

Creatine Phosphate System
Muscular movement relies on adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The ATP compound is stored in our muscles & gives a person instantaneous energy.

However, the stores in muscles are limited and do not last long!

ATP in the muscles provide less than 5 seconds of hard work!


ATP

ENERGY FOR CONTRACTION + ADP
Creatine Phosphate System
PROVIDES LONG TERM ENERGY!

The body uses the aerobic system ONLY when enough O₂ reaches the working muscles.

If enough O₂ is available, lactic acid is not formed.

Use aerobic system for all light exercise. Energy release is slower than the other two systems.

Energy = the breakdown of carbohydrates and fats = not quick enough for intense exercise.

Intensity is replaced by longevity.

Chemical reaction in the human body:


ATP

ENERGY FOR CONTRACTION + ADP


ADP + glycogen

ATP + pyruvic acid


pyruvic acid + O₂

CO₂ + H₂O

BUT WHAT IS ATP & ADP???
Aerobic System
There are two types of energy system:

Aerobic.

Anaerobic.

- Creatine Phosphate System.
- Lactic Acid System.
Energy Systems

IGCSE Physical Education

Unit 2.5.

Exercise & Training

What is it?
Series of explosive movements to improve muscular power.
e.g. bounds, hops, jumps/leaps (on/off boxes), skips.
Stretches muscles before contraction to produce additional power.

Advantages?
Improves muscular power – trains muscles to contract more strongly.
Design to improve specific sports performance.
Can be performed with no equipment.

Disadvantages?
Puts great stress on muscles and joints.
Need to take great care & warm-up thoroughly.
Plyometric Training
Multiple types
:
e.g. Free weights, weight machines, body weight.

Done in SETS of REPETITIONS.
e.g. Bicep curl: 3 sets of 15 reps.

Max. strength: 3 sets x 3-6 reps @ near 1RM

Muscular power: 3 sets x 10-15 reps @ 60-80% 1RM

Muscular endurance: 3 sets x 20-30 reps @ 40-60% 1RM
Weight Training
ISOTONIC TRAINING

What is it?
Isotonic training means the muscles contract and shorten to produce movement.
e.g. push-ups, squats.

Advantages?
Strengthens the muscle throughout the range of motion.
Can be adapted easily to suit different sports.

Disadvantages?
Muscle soreness after exercise because of the high stress levels.
Easy to damage tendons and ligaments if load is too great.
ISOMETRIC TRAINING
What is it?
Isometric training means muscles contract but there is no movement at the muscle or joint.
e.g. Wall sit exercise - stand with your back to a wall, bend the knees into a squat position & hold.
Rugby scrum

Advantages?
Develops static strength.
Inexpensive.
Easy to perform nearly anywhere as little equipment is required.

Disadvantages?
Reduces muscular endurance (lack of blood flow compared to isotonic training).
Cause a rise in blood pressure during this contraction – problematic for those with heart conditions.
Boring!
Weight Training

Sports & the Energy Systems
Weight Training

Physiological Effects
of Exercise
Heart
- SV & Q

Circulatory System
- Blood pressure
- Vessel creation

Respiratory System
- MV = TV x RR
- Breathing muscles

Temperature control (typically 37º)
- Vasodilation / Vasoconstriction
- Sweating
- Shivering

We inhale extra oxygen to pay back the OXYGEN DEBT created by the ATP-CP and LA

The body uses the oxygen to turn the
Lactic Acid
into
CO2 + Water

Complete removal takes about 1 hour.
OXYGEN DEBT
Full transcript