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Qin Dynasty.

ancient china project.

Katherine Song

on 15 June 2013

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Transcript of Qin Dynasty.

The Qin Dynasty
Spiritual and Religious Power
Physical Environment
Concept of Civilization
Ancient China
Social Structures
Vast majority of the Qin dynasty were peasants and practiced agriculture (worked on farms). They lived in small villages located either in or around the empire. Others were merchants, and eventually became quite rich. However, they are lower in social status because most of the merchant's money is from other people's work. Some merchants would buy land to grow crops, and others would use their money to pay for their son's education. From the people that are left, few were very affluent and had very high social rankings. Most were land owners or Confucius scholars. Yet the highest of the structure are the imperial members of the dynasty (excluding concubines).
Work, Gender Roles, and Basic Needs
Most (or all) of the work in the Qin dynasty was done by men. Common occupations included farming, fishing, just about anything really. Women (just like in most ancient cultures) stayed home and did housework, which includes cooking, mending clothes, and of course, obeying the orders of the male in the house. In a nutshell, it seems as though the men did just about everything.
Family Structures
In the family, the person receiving the most respect would be the eldest male. And then in descending order as the age decreases. Most women had little "rights"in the household and viewed as obedient property. (Concubines had next to no rights.) In the family, the child[ren] are expected to give utmost respect to the father (or other eldest male if the father is dead, etc.) According to Confucius'writings, father and child[ren] are to act harmoniously.
The Qin dynasty was located in eastern China, and also south of the Great Wall of China. The Qin empire was very vast. Qin Shi Huangdi pushed China's borders south to what is current day Vietnam, and also current day Korea. However, the heart of the kingdom was located in the Yellow River Valley. Regardless of the many accomplishments of the Qin dynasty, the best known is the Great Wall of China. Qin Shi Huangdi built the Great Wall to fend off the nomadic tribes (barbarians). The Qin emperor also put up borders between China and North Korea, as well as China and Vietnam. Towards the north of the empire, there are mountains, where the Great Wall began. The Great wall was mostly constructed by slaves and peasants.
Ancient China
Ancient Greece
Ancient Egypt
221 BC
210 BC
206 BC
Current king Zhuang Xiang dies. His son, 13, succeeds him. Zhuang Xiang's son, Ying Zheng, is better known as the emperor Qin Shi Huang or Qin Shi Huangdi.
This year marks the end of the 220 year old Warring States period. Qin Shi Huangdi succeeds to the throne, and the Qin dynasty begins. The Qin emperor also unifies China once again and establishes Xianyang, Shanxi, as the capital of China.
A man named Jing Ke attempts to murder Qin Shi Huangdi, but fails.It is most commonly known that The emperor made a sprinting escape, and also rumored to have made three of such attempts in his lifetime.
The emperor Qin Shi Huangdi dies. There are many theories for the cause of his death. Ranging from seizures, chariot accidents, and up to 10,000 concubines. the most commonly accepted theory is that he was accidentally poisoned. Qin Shi Huang did not want to face death, and requested a substance that would make him an immortal (basically a god). It is believed that many of the substances he consumed had contents with mercury.
209 BC
Ying Hu Hai becomes the new emperor of the Qin dynasty. Ying's reign was shortlived, as he only had the throne for three years.
227 BC
The Qin dynasty collapses, and the Chu-Han war commences. The Chu-Han war was an attempt to claim power between Xiang-Yu and Lui Bang after the fall of the Qin dynasty. Obviously, Han won the war, and the Han dynasty began.
246 BC
Rules, Law, Government and Judicial system
slaves and merchants
peasants, farmers,
and some villagers
wealthy landowners
Confucius scholars
Royal families
Transportation in ancient China was akin to most ancient cultures in that epoch. People got around by carriage, horse, or walking. Due to the many roads in the Qin empire, and the standard width for those roads, the dynasty standardized the length of axles so carriages could travel on all roads.
Most trade taking place during the Qin dynasty was imported and exported through the Yellow River and the Silk Road.
Qin established a uniform language, which allowed for greater communication and regulating policies. This uniform language was also helpful to scholars, who could then broadcast their information to a greater number of people and transmit a culture that was previously only understood by few. This form of language also allowed the future empires to communicate with each other.

Qin also created a standardized system where all roads were made of the same general width. Therefore, axles were developed in the same length so all carts could travel on roads.

The dynasty standardized all weights and measures that allowed for efficient commerce, and allowed subsequent dynasties to develop any taxation systems. The dynasty also standardized coinage which led to even more efficient commerce.

The most eminent of any Qin dynasty creation is the initial building of the Great wall. Although the great wall was built over by antecedent dynasties, the oldest piece was ordered by Qin Shi Huangdi.
Values and Beliefs
The Qin adhered to legalist principles, which is chinese philosophy that followed strict acquiescence to a law. This belief allowed the Qin to rule the population from a centralized power structure. This belief proved to be very effective, however, such a policy did not allow for heterodoxy.

During this time, many schools were thought of as felonious, and only legalism was given official approbation. In 213, all books in opposing schools were burned except for the copies held in the Qin imperial library. The only way for emperor to keep his empire unified was to have all his citizens think correspondingly. Any deviation could possibly result in rebellion or a microcosm of the Warring States period.
Jessica Song's prior knowledge
Katherine Song's prior knowledge

Rise and Fall
RISE: The start of the Qin dynasty was when Qin Shi Huangdi defeated the Han, Zhao, Wei, Yan, Chu, and Qi states in the Warring States period. Qin's victory established a central and unified country. Qin Shi Huangdi also declared Xianyang, Shanxi the capital of the empire.

FALL: After the death of the emperor Qin Shi Huang, the Qin empire began to rapidly fall apart. Qin Shi Huang's son succeeded after his death. However, Hu Hai was not the most intelligent person, being that Li Si convinced him to kill his twenty or so siblings, and Hu Hai listened. Later, an uprising was started by the villagers in an effort to overthrow the government. This uprising was led by two peasants; Chen Shen and Wu Guang. Following the uprising, a rebellion emerged. The rebellion was led by Xiang Yu and Lui Bang. Lui Bang was from Han and Xiang Yu was from Chu. The rebellion erupted into the Chu-Han war, which marked the end of the Qin dynasty and the birth of the Han dynasty. (Just to summarize, Lui Bang defeated Xiang Yu. Because it was the Chu-Han war, and Lui Bang was from Han, and defeated Xiang Yu, who was from Chu. Therefore the next dynasty was Han... Get it?)

Regardless of the type of crop you ate each Chinese meal had fan and cai. (Fan is cooked grain, and cai means vegtables.) Cai also refers to the general arrangement of side dishes. Even though the general gist of the meals were the same, the way your food was cooked varied by class. The rich and high class people had their food cooked elaborately, such as stir-frying or steaming. The higher class also ate more meat, eggs, and fish. One thing that also did not vary by class was how many meals you ate a day. The Chinese had two meals a day. One mid-morning, and one before nightfall. The Chinese are also known for tea, but tea was developed in the Han dynasty, so warm rice beer was common. Fish was also very important sustenance. The Chinese fabricated artificial ponds/pools to breed fish.

Hunting was considered a sport. The meat gathered while hunting was commonly sold in markets, eaten, or preserved. Chinese celebrations meant for good food. Exceptional food was prepared at weddings, celebrating the birth of a son, at a funeral, or on traditional holidays. Again, regardless of your ranking or class, everyone would celebrate. Lower class usually ate roasted duck or chicken, pan fried fish, vegtables, grains, and soup. The higher class had more "ëxotic"foods such as bear paw, shark fin, and wild boar. Rice wine was consumed at these occasions.

The clothing style in most ancient Chinese dynasties has not changed. Aside from a few minor trends, most pieces stay the same. The three main pieces are pien fu, the chang pao, and the sheni. These were woven out of hemp or silk, depending on your class. The color of your clothing also depended on your class. There was also a specific color that only the emperor (or empress since Wu Zetian). I believe in the Qin dynasty, this color was gold.
Since there isn't any irrefutable proof that any ancient Chinese soldiers fought in an exact formation, it is assumed the the general battle arranged was built up of three "layers"of soldiers. The front and outermost soldiers were usually the strongest and received the burden of protecting the emperor. The second group defends any boundaries or borders, and searches for enemies. The rest of the men are located in the empire. It isn't confirmed whether or not any of these soldiers were mercenaries.
The rules of the Qin dynasty were like most of the other ancient Chinese. The emperor was the supreme ruler, and most (or all) of the time, what he says, goes. It doesn't seem as though the Qin dynasty was an extremely violent empire, but punishments were enforced for disregarding the emperor and his rulings. The government system is a monarchy.
Ancient Chinese had emperors.
Religious beliefs varied from each dynasty.
The government was a harsh monarchy.
Qin Shi Huangdi built the Great Wall.
Education was not highly valued.
Many books were burned.
The Greeks had a fair democracy.
The Greeks were loyal believers of the Gods.
The Greeks built many architectural wonders.
Education was a very important.
Books held very high value.
Ancient Chinese had emperors.
Religious beliefs varied from each dynasty.
The government was a harsh monarchy.
Qin Shi Huangdi built the Great Wall.
Education was not highly valued.
Many books were burned.
Both civilizations seem to value men over women. Ancient China and ancient Greece both provide more life opportunity for males. The females seem to be viewed as property rather than people.
Both civilizations are divided into states. Although Qin Shi Huangdi centralized China, the whole of China is not included in the Qin empire. Ancient Greece was divided into seperate city-states.
Ancient Egypt had kings as rulers.
Ancient Egypt then developed a democracy.
Education held value in the system.
Scrolls containing writing were also valued.
Great pyramids and tombs were built.
Not much was found about religion during the Qin dynasty, but I assume there was Confucianism was practiced since Confucius scholars were highly honored.
Like other dynasties preceding and following it, the Qin empire might also have encouraged Buddhism.
Affect of ancient worlds on modern day society
One of the most drastic changes from the ancient civilizations is the rights that almost all of us have. We can speak our own opinions, and have the right to any religions. There isn't any gender related recalcitrance, and for the most part, everyone is equal. In a way, everyone doesn't have to be so uptight.

Ancient communication was either a letter traveling down a road, by messenger, or face to face update. In an ancient civilization, it would have been next to impossible to contact someone that lived on the other side of the country. Today, we can communicate with anyone.
I've learned a lot of things about myself as a learner. The most important being that even if you have a personal issue with a group member, that doesn't give you an excuse to not work on the project. This project also taught me to manage my time in a more evenly spaced manner. Basically meaning that I should have optimal control over all of my work throughout the entire year, and not the first two terms. Aside from the personal stuff, it was quite interesting learning about the civilizations that helped shape our society.
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