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Transcript of Sigmund Freud
The basic postulate of psychoanalysis, the concept of a dynamic unconscious mind, grew out of Freud's observation that the physical symptoms of hysterical patients tended to disappear after apparently forgotten material was made conscious. He saw the unconscious as an area of great psychic activity, which influenced personality and behavior but operated with material not subject to recall through normal mental processes. Freud postulated that there were a number of defense mechanisms—including repression, reaction-formation, regression, displacement, and rationalization—that protect the conscious mind from those aspects of reality it may find difficult to accept. The major defense mechanism is repression, which induced a "forgetfulness" for harsh realities. Observing the relationship between psychoneurosis and repressed memories, Freud made conscious recognition of these forgotten experiences the foundation of psychoanalytic therapy. Hypnosis was the earliest method used to probe the unconscious, but due to its limited effectiveness, it was soon discarded in favor of free association. Dreams, which Freud interpreted as symbolic wish fulfillments, were considered a primary key to the unconscious, and their analysis was an important part of Freudian therapy. Most important Contribution Personal Biography May 6, 1856 (Freiberg in Mähren, now Czech Republic) – September 23, 1939 (London, England)
His mother was twenty years younger than his father. So Sigmund Freud grew up in an unusual family dynamic, with his mother halfway in age between himself and his father.
Moved to Vienna when he was four
Parents poor, but ensured his education (studied Greek and Latin, history, the natural science and was a superior student)
Received his doctorate in medicine at the age of 24 and some money to pursue his neurological studies abroad
Returned to Vienna, married and began a project, his own self-analysis (act of studying oneself)
Analyzed his dreams and wrote papers in which he studied the influence of unconscious thought processes
Freud became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis Relaxed Atmosphere
Relaxed atmosphere therapy is based around the principle that the patient must feel free to express anything. They are in a relaxed atmosphere with a couch, dim lights and sound proof walls. The therapist is barely present. This creates an atmosphere free of judgement. Sigmund Freud ID, the Ego and the SuperEgo Freud broke the psyche into 3 parts which he called tripartite. This constituted of the id the ego and the superego. These are not physical parts of the brain, they are systems that he created to explain human behavior and psychology. Psychology The Founding father of psychoanalysis Types of Therapy Impulsive and inherited part of our brain.
We are born with it
Includes aspects of ourselves such as death and sexual libido
It is how we experience pleasure and pain.
I.E. Wanting something very much Dealing with reality
Expressing the Id in a socially acceptable manner
Makes impulses more structured
Middle Man between Supergo and Id
I.E. Coping with a loved one's death.
Deals with morals (right and wrong)
How we are supposed to be, and perceived?
Two parts: the conscious and the ideal self.
The conscious punishes the ego through feelings of guilt
The ideal self is how we want our life to be or how we want to be perceived
I.E. Career Aspirations (ideal), not getting a job (conscious) ID EGO SUPEREGO Bibliography "Understanding the Id, Ego, and Superego in Psychology." - For Dummies. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/understanding-the-id-ego-and-superego-in-psycholog.html>.
"World Biography." Sigmund Freud Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.notablebiographies.com/Fi-Gi/Freud-Sigmund.html>.
"Psychoanalysis." Simply Psychology. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychoanalysis.html>.
Boeree, Dr. C. George. "Sigmund Freud." Sigmund Freud. N.p., 2009. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/freud.html>.
"Sigmund Freud." NNDB.com. Soylent Communications, 2012. Web. 21 Oct. 2012. <http://www.nndb.com/people/736/000029649/>.
"Measuring the Unmeasurable." Making the Modern World. The Science Museum, 2004. Web. 22 Oct. 2012. <http://www.makingthemodernworld.org.uk/learning_modules/psychology/02.TU.04/?section=13>. http://vimeo.com/17500181 To clarify the operation of the human psyche, Freud and his followers introduced a vast body of psychoanalytic theory. In considering the human personality as a whole, Freud divided it into three functional parts: id, ego, and superego. He saw the id as the deepest level of the unconscious, dominated by the pleasure principle, with its object the immediate gratification of instinctual drives. The superego, originating in the child through an identification with parents, and in response to social pressures, functions as an internal censor to repress the urges of the id. The ego, on the other hand, is seen as a part of the id modified by contact with the external world. It is a mental agent mediating among three contending forces: the outside demands of social pressure or reality, libidinal demands for immediate satisfaction arising from the id, and the moral demands of the superego. Although considered only partly conscious, the ego constitutes the major part of what is commonly referred to as consciousness. Freud asserted that conflicts between these often-opposing components of the human mind are crucial factors in the development of neurosis.
Psychoanalysis focused on early childhood, postulating that many of the conflicts which arise in the human mind develop in the first years of a person's life. Freud demonstrated this in his theory of psychosexuality, in which the libido (sexual energy) of the infant progressively seeks outlet through different body zones (oral, anal, phallic, and genital) during the first five to six years of life. Catharsis- Catharsis is the sudden outburst of emotions brought to the surface when the trauma experienced by the patient is re enacted.
Insight- Insight is being aware of the source of the emotion, the original trauma that occurred.
When catharsis and insight occur, the major part of therapy is finished. Final Stages Parapraxes
A parapraxis is a slip of the tongue. It is often called a Freudian slip. Freud thought these slips were clues to unconscious conflicts. Dream Analysis
Psychologists use dream analysis as a method of psychotherapy because in dreams symbols of the unconscious appear. Resistance
Resistance is when a client skips appointments or changes the topic or in general resists something in free association. It means they are nearing something that they find unconsciously threatening. Free Association
In free association therapy, the patient is allowed to talk about anything they wish. This is believed to bring the subconscious to the fore of the mind. Word Association
In word association therapy, a series of stimulus words are read by the therapist and the patient is invited to say the first thing that pops into their head. Freud believed that this would access the unconscious.