Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Tree

No description
by

Jessica Proctor

on 26 April 2014

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Tree

Root
Phylogenetic Tree
By:Jessica Proctor

Archaea
Eukarya
Bacteria
They are genetically similiar to eukayotes but have prokaryotic cells. Archaea are found in extreme environments. There are three basid types of Archaea: Methanogens, Halophilic and Thermophilic. They have one kingdom
Pictures
http://seunghun.wikispaces.com/Archaebacteria
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermophile
http://snowbio.wikispaces.com/Halophile+Archea+%28bacteria%29
http://amm-mcrc.org/Bioresources/studentspages/all_students_work/jenish/images/cb2.jpg
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=mollusca&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=87C3A89191B38DA3826343473A908815B7BAC3E0&selectedIndex=4
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=gastropda&go=&qs=bs&form=QBIR#view=detail&id=A606C74F33D716392B23D06BFF560DBC4B0F201B&selectedIndex=1
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=rotifera&FORM=HDRSC2#view=detail&id=EB84F56FE07F3CAFD52192C222F6D0D274BAB86B&selectedIndex=8
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=mussels&go=&qs=bs&form=QBIR#view=detail&id=0D9B9A493E4F2F45C32074BF2E60005ED1E8A0A6&selectedIndex=2
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=polyplacaphore&go=&qs=bs&form=QBIR#view=detail&id=E7D2AEDD5BEF9FB3BE8458F1C0BAD69039AE84E0&selectedIndex=1
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=turbellaria&qs=SC&sk=HS1&FORM=QBIR&pq=turbellia&sc=8-9&sp=2&qs=SC&sk=HS1#view=detail&id=A7CD20C3FB8634FEEEDB27F96130276202FB2B97&selectedIndex=5
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=trematoda&go=&qs=bs&form=QBIR#view=detail&id=46C77372351AE9DEFE63AE0F0373B797D67E69D3&selectedIndex=7
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=cestoda&go=&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=cestoda&sc=8-6&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=C334BA592F3DB3441215C64C1D79C0BB3075396A&selectedIndex=23
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=euglenozoa&go=&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=euglenozoa&sc=0-1&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=4B885D20A6527489B6B63E94BAEF12CA699CDCE2&selectedIndex=8
http://palaeos.com/eukarya/alveolata/images/Colpodella.jpg
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=water+bear&go=&qs=n&form=QBIR&pq=water+bear&sc=8-9&sp=-1&sk=#view=detail&id=FAB84C3EE405A371D4C7BF4BFBBCFB5A197A966A&selectedIndex=7
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=onychophora&go=&qs=bs&form=QBIR#view=detail&id=95D58C21AB403231621036704067406597025EF3&selectedIndex=0
http://www.fossilmuseum.net/fossil-art/cnidaria/braincoral.jpg
http://www.seawater.no/fauna/cnidaria/images/dsc03830.jpg
http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3263/2821834407_e0a9be13a0_z.jpg
http://www.reefnews.com/reefnews/photos/corals/sponges.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b9/Freshwater_Bryozoan234.JPG
http://www.esacademic.com/pictures/eswiki/78/Nereis.gif
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/30/Regenwurm1.jpg/240px-Regenwurm1.jpg
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/maiers_andr/nematode%205.bmp
http://tovtry.com/foto/fauna/bezhrebetni/in_vertebrata_(5).jpg
http://www.aboututila.com/PhotoGallery/DeepBlue/Photos/Bluebell-Tunicate-01.jpg
https://biology.nebrwesleyan.edu/courses/labs/biology_of_animals/Images/Lab%20Images/Images%20for%20the%20Web/Amphioxus_Whole_20X.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Eichelwurm.jpg/220px-Eichelwurm.jpg
http://www.calacademy.org/science_now/wild_lives/images/scorpion_500w.jpg
http://bio.rutgers.edu/~gb102/lab_2/arthropoda/chelicerata/merostomata/hs_crab_dors_du.jpg
http://163.16.28.248/bio/activelearner/29/images/ch29c3.jpg
http://biomesfirst09.wikispaces.com/file/view/sea.jpg/108666747/282x212/sea.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_97xRKC5I6Fw/TNfjYg6EFnI/AAAAAAAAADM/B8HtQv2pHMM/s1600/echinoidea.jpg
http://bio1151.nicerweb.com/Locked/media/ch33/33_40EchinodermDiversityE.jpg
http://www.i-esprit.net/220-07i.jpg
Mozley, S. (2014) Guide to Laboratory Exercise
s. Bio 350 L Animal Diversity. 21-107
Anaerobes and Chemoautotrphs
Live in Stagnant, sulfurous marches
Form methane by reducing CO2 using hydrogen sulfide
Live in extremely salty environments
Require water 10x saltier than sea water
Live in hot springs an submarine volcanic vents
Typically live in environments of 60-80 degrees Celsius
Bacteria are the most abundant organism and the oldest taxon to date. They are prokaryotes that consist of photoheterotrophs, chemotrophs, photoheterotrophs and chemoautrophs. They come in shapes of spheres, rods, corkscrews, filaments and branching chains. It is thought that Cyanobacteria helped add oxygen to the atmosphere 2.5 billion years ago.
cynobacteria
Common Ancestor
Diploblastic
Parazoa
Eumetazoa
Porifera
Cnidaria
Radiata
Bilateria
Protostome
Deuterostome
Chordata
Nematoda
Rotifera
Echinodermata
Hemichordata
Anthozoa

Scyphozoa
Hydrozoa
Euglenozoa
Alveolata
Stramenopila
Virdiplantae
Fungi
Animalia
Mollusca
Annelida
Arthropada
Vertebrata
Urochordata
Cephalochordata
Tardigrada
Onychophora
Ecdysozoa
Lophotrochozoa
Polyplacophora
Bivalvia
Gastropoda
Cephalopoda
Platyhelminths
Turbellaria
Trematoda
Cestoda
Bryozoa
Polychatea
Clitellata
Chelicerata
Merostomata
Arachnida
Stelleroidea
Echioidea
Holothuroidea
Crinoidea
All members have cilia
Protozoans that feed on bacteria & each other
Move by either Ciliary or Ameboid locomotion
Grow in straw or Hay infusion
There are 3 groups:
Dinoflagellates
apicomplexans
ciliates
Have 1+ Flagella
May or may not have chloroplast
Unicellular
Mixotroph
Found in pond water
Have hair like projections and glide
Photoautitrophic, mixotrophic & absorptive heterotrophs
Found in soil, fresh water & marine environments
Colors range from olive green-shades of brown
Large chloroplast
Include:
Diatoms
Chrysophytes
Brown Algae
Some Protozoa
Bright green with cellulose cell walls
Photoautotrophic
Some have Flagella others are immobile and are both solitary or colonial
Unicellular-Multicellular
Can be flat, spherical or long filamentous
Contain Chlorophyl
Includes Green Algae-Land Plants
Mosses
Ferns
Gymnosperms
Angiosperms
Absorptive Heterotrophs that grow as hyphae, also contain sporangia and scope
Grow on Solid surfaces and invade tissues
Aid in structural support and nutrient absorption
Two taxa have fruiting bodies
Include:
Yeasts
Mold
Mushrooms
Multicellular
Various
Contain 2 tissue layers:
Epidermis & gastrodermis
Multicellular organisms having less-specialized cells
Multicellular organisms wih more specialized cells
Cnidoctyes-used to sting prey, Sensory cells and Epithelio muscular cells, on epidermis
Gland cells and nutritive muscular cells in gastrodermis
Internal cavity & mouth
Radial Symmery
Protosome
Key:
Kingdom
Phylum
Subphylum
Class
Polyp predominate-no medusa stage
Include:
Anemonea, sea whips and corals
Medusa Predominate
Planula larva, Ephyra-asexual, Medusa-sexual
Include:
Aurelia and Jellyfish
Has three life stages containing polyps and medusas
Include:
Hydra, Obelia, Man-o-war and Vellella
Multicellular
Have pores, chambers and canals for water flow
Asymmetrical
Contain Spicules and Collagen
Three types:
Asconoid-least complex large spongocoel
Syconoid-larger asconoids next complex
Leuconid-most complex, large masses of oscula and no spongocoel
Adult
Medusa-sexual
Planura
Free-swimming larva-settles down & anchors into polyp
Polyp
Asuxual-bud, free-standing structure with arm-like tentacles
Life Stages
Fresh-water or marine filter feeders
Contain a Corona (creates a feeding vortex), Mastax, Foot & Toes (often contian glue glands to stick to surfaces) and a Complete digestive tract
Reproduce Parthenogenesis
Pseudocoelomate
Acoelomates
Sense Organs
Has an Anterior and posterior end
Free-living
Blind gut
Feed by protruding pharynx-feed on planarian pieces of earthworms
Beat cilia on epidermis to glide and create turbulence
Planarian can regenerate from small pody parts
5 stage life cycle
Parasites
Are Flukes: blood and liver flukes
Composed of segments called proglotiids and Scolex (head)-this buds asexually to create proglottids
Parasites and reach host by it eating undercooked meat
Life Stages
Adult
Egg
Miracidium
Sporocyst
Cercaria
*In liver flukes this will go into Metacercaria and then adult
Protosomes
Eucoelomates/Coelomates
Unsegmentes
Include:
Shell, Mantle, Muscular foot, Radula, Pericardium
Found in intertidal zones of rock seacoast
Graze on algae using radula
8 seperate shell plates
Have a straight gut
Include
Chiton
Shells with 2 halves
Filter feeders
Live in fresh water or marine
Includes:
oysters, shipworms, scallops, jingle shells, coquinas and razor shells
5 Life stages in freshwater, 4 in marine
Fresh Water life Stage
Adult
Marsupium
Glochidia
Tiny Clam
Tiny Clam
Egg
Trocophore Larva
Veliger Larva
Adult
Marine Life Stages
Free-living; live in marine, terrestrial & fresh water
Single shell that is often spiral & goes torsion
Muscular foot attached to stomach
Includes:
Conchs, Limpets, augers, slipper shells, whelks, snails & slugs
Marine
Complex eyes
Free-swimming
Predators, very intelligent
Closed Circulatory system (different from other mollusk
Includes:
Cuttlefish, squids, nautilus
Eucoelomate
Sessile
Live in colonies in both marine and freshwater
Each zooid is a lophophore
Use cilia on tentacles to pull water and food particles
Asexual
Freshwater contain a statoblast that enables them to live during the winter
Protosomes
Eucoelomates
Segmented
Have Septa and Chaetae (except for leeches)
Trochophore larva in marine Polychaetes
Contain parapods and elaborate head appendages
Mostly marine & estuarine
Have Chaetal bundles`
Includes:
clam worms, lug worms, feather duster worms
Contain a Clitellum-secretes protective mucus around embryo
Two sub classes:
Oligochaeta- night crawlers & earthworms, have a prostomium and mouth, posterior end is flattened to anchor in burrows
Hirundinea-no septa or chaeta, are leeches
Pseudocoelomate-has a very high fluid pressure
Only have Longitudinal muscles
Have a stylet to pierce surface
Protosomes
Live in moss
Chitinous Cuticle that is molted
Posses stylet, pairs of lobopods with claws
Go through Cryptobiosis
Form a cyst-like tuns when environment is dry
Protosomes
Molt Chitinous Cuticle
Have antenn, jaws and a tracheal system, lobopods and slime glands
Velvet worms
Are carnivorous
Protostomes
Eucoelomates
Metameric
Body segments called tagmata
Jointed appendages, chitinous exoskeleton
Myriapoda
Mandibulata
Trilobitomorpha
Extinct at the end of Paleozoic Era and is segmentd
Pycnogonida
Two tagma prosoma and opisthosoma. No antenna, mandibles or maxillae
Horseshoe crab
Have gnathobases
Have 8 legs, Pedipalps and Chelicera
Have orders: Aranea, Acari, Opiliones and Scorpionida
Sea spiders
Long legs and small body
Two tagmata:head and trunk.
They are uniramous and consist of two subclasses: Diplopoda (millipedes with 2 pairs of legs per segment) & Chilopoda (centipedes 1 pair of legs per segment & fangs)
Have mandible mouthparts and contain
Branchiopoda
Copepoda
Cirripedia
Malacostraca
Insecta
Consist of Decapods (shrimp), Amphipoda (scuds) and Isopoda (pillbugs)
Live in terrestrial, freshwater and marine
Live in freshwater and saltwater
Reproduce Parthenogentically
Marine zooplankton
Single compound eye
Small & often lack gills, heart and arteries
Free-living
Have a larva called nauplius which hatch into copepodid that lot 4x and grow appendages & segments
Have multi-segmented, fringed legs
First larva stage is nauplius
Contain Barnacles
Have a chitinous exoskeleton
3 tagma, 3 pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and antenna
Some are wingless, others have wings and go through either complete or incomplete metamorphosis
Pentamerism
Internal skeleton of Ossicles
Mutable collagenous tissues
Marine
Water Vascular system
Eucoelomates
Early larva is bipinnaria (bilateral) and second is Brachiolaria-uses tentacles to collect food
Have two subclasses:
Asteroidea (sea stars), can lose their arms and regenerate them, have an aboral surface, madreporite to filter water, each arm consist of gonads, engulf food by inverting stomach
ophiuroidea (brittle stars & serpent stars), blind gut, stomach does not extend into arms, brittle arms so no suction cups, cilia captures food particles
No arms and typically spiny
5 ambulacral areas with tube feet
Aristotle Latern-teeth/jaws and tongue-like structure
Can crawl with spines &/or tube feet
Soft skin that is permeated with ossicles
Circular & longitudinal muscles
Oral tentacles to feed on digested decay or organic material
5 rows of tube feet
Sea Cucumbers
5 arms that bear pinnules
Tube feet gather food and have ciliated ambulacral
Sessile suspension feeders
Have a complete gut
Contain feather stars and sea llies
Similiar to chordates except they lack a notochord and unlike echnioderms they do not undergo metamorphosis. They are trimeric containing a proboscis, collar and trunk. They have a ciliated epidermis, glomerus, complete digestive tract and respiratory system of gill slits.
They are marine
They all have a notochord, hollow nerve chord, pharyngeal slits and post-anal tail. Most also have myomeres and a heart
These are sea squirts or tunicates. Many are colonial and reproduce asexually through budding. In the adult phase mos are sessile and suspension feeders. It conatins two siphons and the notochord is located in the post-anal tail. They live in water
The notochord extends from the head to the tail. These are called lancelets.
They have a more complew structure. They have a developed skull and all have vertebraes except the hagfish. Most classes have paired apendages and jaws.
Myxine
Cephalaspidomorphi
Chondricthyes
Actinopterygii
Actinistia
These are hagfish.
They have a cartilaginous notochord, atriopores which water exits from, slime glands, no scales/jaws/appendages and a two chambered heart
They are scavengers and predators
Lost vertebrae, have no jaw, bones, fins or scales
External gill slits
Attach to host to suck blood, parasites
Olfactory pit on the top of the head
Includes: sharks, rays, chimaeras
Have placoid scales, pharyngeal slits open to outside, heterocercal tail, no swim bladder but oily liver, spiral valve in the digestive system
Reproduce via oviparous, ovoviviparous and viviparous
Have cartilaginous skeleton
Ray-finned fish
Have a swim bladder, bony operculum over gill slits, homocercal tail & lateral line and are bony
Have three scale types: Ganoid (heavy & inflexible), Cycloid (smooth outer edge), Ctenoid (toothed)
They are living fossils called Coelacanth.
They have fleshy fins and are the closest ancestor of tetrapods
Live in Madagascar
They are lobe-finned
Amphibia
Diapsida
They are ectothermic/poikiloothermic
Tetrapods
Well-developed appengaes, lunges and cutaneous respiration and a three chambered heart
Has three orders:
Anura-includes frogs & toads, they have a fused vertebrae called a urostyle
Caudata-includes salamander, mudpuppy & newts, tail in all stages of life, they have smooth, non-scaly skin
Gymnophiona-include Caecilians, they resemble earthworms and live underground
They have 2 temporal openings, Amniotic sheled eggs, epidermal scales, efficient lungs, no larval stage the limbs are positioned under the body
Includes three orders:
Chelonia-includes turtles, terrapins, tortoises, they're skull is anapsid (use to be diapsid)
Squamata-Includes Lacertilla and Serpentes, they have keratinized scales
Crocodilia-Includes Crocodilia and alligators, they have a hard palate, teeth sockets and 4-chambered heart
Also includes Aves: They have forelimbs modified into wings, sternum that is keeled to fly or keeless in flightless birds
Unidirection lungs, hollow bones, feathers, no bladder but semisolid urine and a toe-lock system
Mammalia
Synapsid skull, hair glands, external ears with thee ossicles, diaphram and epiglotis, complete hard and soft palates and a high metabolism
Also have a Heterodont tooth pattern
Full transcript