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The Origin of the Scramble for Africa
Transcript of The Origin of the Scramble for Africa
- Belgium controlled railways for profit
- Economy driven: copper production
- Belgian Free Congo State and trading posts set up by H.M Stanley ordered by King Leopold II
1880: French Protectorate and Belgian Congo create division
The Origin of the Scramble for Africa
by: Eric Knorr & Regan Wind
What & When
European Countries: Britain, Germany, France, Belgium, Spain, Italy, and Portugal
African Countries: Libya, Egypt, Congo, Nigeria
Why is this colonization important?
Scot David Livingstone
HM Stanley - his mission
HM Stanley's findings
Stanley saw the financial possibility but need backers
Leopold II was most interested in the Central African basin of the Congo
The International Congo Association
he had treaties with some 500 chiefs that allowed their Association to claim the land
Karl Peters - A German explorer who signed treaties with chiefs in East Africa
Brazza - A French explorer claiming areas on the Congo River
Private enterprises - the first explorers
Then.... The Berlin Conference
In 1885, Bismark (Germany) called for an international conference in Berlin to decide how countries would go about claiming African territories.
The Berlin Conference stated that territorial claims could not merely be made on paper, but had to be made by actual occupation by troops.
In the 15 years following, an intense effort by European nations to claim territories began
Ethiopia & Liberia
The Congo Free State
creator: The Berlin Conference
replaced: The International Congo Association
an international colony
overseen by Leopold
tried to abolish slavery in those areas in which it persisted
international efforts failed
there was no way to enforce agreements
commercial interest = motive (4)
efforts at diplomacy were pushed aside for greed
Leopold abused the people of the Kongo for his own economic benefit
The Congo - rubber trees
Leopold worked the local people under brutal circumstances to obtain as much rubber as possible and create a financial fortune.
the abuse of local labor
occured all over Africa
gold & diamonds
exacerbated the race for African land
Economic Opportunity (continued)
European Control of African Land
European Powers pushed aggressively for African Lands b/w 1885-1900
Portugal - Angola & Mozambique
Italy - Somaliland & Eritrea on the Red Sea
Germany - colonies in East Africa and in the west coast at Togo and Cameroons
The French - most of West Africa
The British took areas North and South.
Cecile Rhodes (4)
tropical disease prevention - quinine
effect: safer for Europeans to travel to Africa
new weapons: repeating rifle, machine gun, light artillery
effects: lower numbers, more effective
enabled access to the inner portions of Africa beyond the coasts
effect(s): Rivers that were previously inavigable could now be discovered. + these ships required less fuel space than previous watercraft.
advancement facilitating imperialism
The Field of Natural Science
the fact that there were unexplored life forms
incomplete reports from the past
from: the country of Belgium & wealthy Americans
to: the American Museum of Natural History
for: exploration of the region
1. Palmer, R.R., and Joel Colton. "Chapter 16 Europe's World Supremacy, 1871-1914." A history of the modern world. 10th ed. Boston [etc.: McGraw-Hill, 2007. 651. Print.
2. Palmer, R.R., and Joel Colton. "Chapter 16 Europe's World Supremacy, 1871-1914." A history of the modern world. 10th ed. Boston [etc.: McGraw-Hill, 2007. 652-653. Print.
3. Palmer, R.R., and Joel Colton. "Chapter 16 Europe's World Supremacy, 1871-1914." A history of the modern world. 10th ed. Boston [etc.: McGraw-Hill, 2007. 656-657. Print.
4. "The Story of Africa." BBC News. BBC, Web. 14 Jan. 2014. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/11chapter4.shtml>.
5. Slack, Gordy . "The First Comprehensive Survey of Northeastern Congo." The Congo's First Thorough Biological Survey. Version 2.0. American Museum of Natural History, Web. Jan. 2014. <http://diglib1.amnh.org/articles/overview1.html>.
6. Jones, Jim. "Technology and Imperialism." Europe & Africa in the 19th Century. West Chester University, n.d. Web. 19 Jan. 2014. <courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his312/lectures/19thcent.htm#technology>.
7. "French in West Africa." French in West Africa. Fordham University, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://www.africa.upenn.edu/K-12/French_16178.html>
8. Cacee Hoyer, “15 Minute History: The Scramble for Africa”, Project: Interview, n.d. October 2012,<http://dase.laits.utexas.edu/media/not_even_past/mp3/100500852.mp3>
9. "Internet History Sourcebooks." Internet History Sourcebooks. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Jan. 2014. http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1893lugard.asp
10. "Unit Two: Studying Africa through the Social Studies." Exploring Africa. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014.
Thank you for watching!!!
- Time period: 1880- 1914
- European countries came together and partitioned (broke up) Africa during the Berlin Conference
- Interests: Colonization, natural resources, and sources of labor.
- New Imperialism Era: Europe gained global power through expansion and colonization.
1) How did the reasons for the beginning of the "Scramble for Africa" represent the time period in specifically Europe?
2) What were the pros and cons of the outcome of the colonization of Africa?
- Africa resulted in being extremely diverse
- society and economy in Africa were disrupted due to settlers
-1911: Italy invaded Libya
-Under collapsed Ottoman rule: Libya was free,
but still occupied by Italy
- offered resources: groundnuts and peanuts (cash crops)
-Suez Canal (1869) created short route to India that interested British
-ruled under the British