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Copy of Copy of Copy of Road to Disunion
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Copy of Road to Disunion
Missouri Compromise 1820
The primary issue was that if Missouri was allowed in the Union, there would be more slave states than free in the Senate.
Missouri was allowed to enter the Union as a slave state. In return, Maine was allowed to enter as a free state.
In addition, Congress forbade slavery north of the 36˚ 30’ parallel (the southern border of Missouri).
This compromise ended the debate for almost 30 years with states being admitted into the Union in free and slave parings.
This pattern changed in 1850 when California, due to the Gold Rush, had a population large enough to apply for statehood.
With no slave state available to balance the entry of a free one, major conflict ensued between the North and South.
The South was fearful that losing the balance of power in the Senate would one day give the North the opportunity to end slavery.
Compromise of 1850
Senators Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas wrote the compromise bill that both groups grudgingly agreed to.
Though there were several provisions in the Compromise of 1850, the two most important were:
California was admitted as a free state.
Fugitive Slave Act guaranteed the return of any runaway slave to their owners if they were caught in the North.
Compromise of 1850
While debate over the Compromise of 1850 was raging in Congress, prominent Georgia politicians were deciding if the state should accept the terms of the Compromise or secede.
If passed, it would give the free states more representation in the U.S. Senate.
Ultimately, Georgia approved the Compromise of 1850 because of the inclusion of the Fugitive Slave Act.
With Georgia leading the way, other southern states also accepted the Compromise.
Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform
Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854
In Kansas and Nebraska, the issue of slavery would be determined by popular sovereignty, or the ability for the states to decide for themselves if they would be slave or free.
This act repealed the Missouri Compromise.
Kansas was flooded with people from both sides trying to vote.
Violence erupted at the poles and Kansas became "Bleeding Kansas"
Dred Scott US Supreme Court Case- 1857
Dred Scott was a slave who was taken by his master to the free states of Illinois and Wisconsin.
Upon his return to Missouri, Scott sued the state based on the belief that his time in the free states made him a free man.
The court ruled in favor of Missouri stating that slaves and freed blacks were not citizens of the United States and did not have the right to sue in the first place.
They went on to say that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it limited people's right to property.
Four men ran for office: Abraham Lincoln (Republican, a party that was created with the goal of stopping slavery), John Breckenridge (Southern Democrat), John Bell (Third Party), and Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat).
Though Lincoln's name was removed from Southern ballots, he won the election.
Beginning with South Carolina, southern states began seceding.
Election of 1860
Georgia Debates Secession
Those who did not want to leave the Union included representatives from the northern counties, small farmers, non-slave holders, and Alexander Stephens.
On the other side, were large farmers and slave holders, Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown, and Robert Toombs.
Ultimately, Georgia seceded in 1861.