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Grammar Review

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Rebecca Shaver

on 27 September 2018

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Transcript of Grammar Review

Collective nouns are nouns that we know count many people, but we refer to them in the singular.

ex.: team, band, class, staff, etc.


SENTENCES
FRAGMENTS
GRAMMAR
REVIEW
ENG101
RUN-ON: COMMA SPLICES
RUN-ON: FUSED SENTENCES
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENT
...AND COMMAS...AND SEMICOLONS...AND COLONS...
A sentence fragment is a word group that pretends to be a sentence. (LP)

It is
not enough
sentence.

ex.: When Chandler proposed to Monica
A comma splice is when two complete sentences are joined only by a comma.

It is
too much
sentence.

ex.: Ross likes dinosaurs, everyone else thinks he's a nerd.

A fused sentence is another name for a run-on sentence with no joining punctuation.

ex.: Everyone was at Central Perk they listened to Phoebe sing "Smelly Cat."
PUNCTUATION
Nouns
are people, places, things, and ideas.


Verbs
are actions or states of being.
Sentences, or independent clauses, are complete thoughts that meet three requirements:
Common versus proper nouns
Common: car
Proper: Tesla

Common: cat
Proper: Garfield
1. Have a
subject
2. Have a
verb
(predicate)
3. Make sense when they stand alone
Ex.:
Ross

is
in love with Rachel.
*TO FIND THE SUBJECT: find the verb, then ask yourself WHO or WHAT is performing the verb
Pronouns replace/reference a singular or plural noun. We use them to avoid repeating common or proper nouns over and over.
A fragment is:
missing a subject
Ran to the store. (Missing the subject- who ran?)
missing a verb or has the wrong verb form
My favorite history teacher. (Missing the verb- What did the teacher do or say?)
a leftover phrase
For better or worse. (What is better or worse?)
an abandoned clause
When I saw her. (What happened when “I saw her?”)
a misuse of “such as, for example, especially,” etc.
For example, my brother was there. (an example of what?)
Find a Fragment
Fix a Fragment
RULE OF SUBORDINATION
Find a Run-on
Fix a Run-on
Commas are used to help readers avoid confusion. They go in lists or set off dependent clauses,
or non-essential information
, in most cases.

Semicolons are "used to connect major sentence elements of equal grammatical rank" (LP).


Colons are "used primarily to call attention to the words that follow it" (LP).
Turn the sentence into a yes-or-no question. Does it make sense? Can you answer with a single yes or no?
Ex.: Rachel lives with Joey, she used to live with Monica.
Does Rachel live with Joey, she used to live with Monica?
This means you are joining
two equal items
.
Use a semicolon ALONE
Use a semicolon AND a conjunctive adverb and comma (ex. otherwise, perhaps, nevertheless)
Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction. (FANBOYS)
Subjects and verbs must agree.
1. Singular
subjects
agree with singular
verbs
.
2. Plural
subjects
agree with plural
verbs
.
Ex. 1:
Phoebe

is
a massage therapist.
Ex. 2:
Monica and Ross

are
siblings.
Remember
:
1. When a subject is singular, the verb has an -s ending.
2. When a subject is plural, the verb does not have an -s ending.
Subject-Verb Agreement
Subject-Verb Agreement Rules
:
http://prezi.com/ebyfi_cinqfg/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share
Pronoun-Antecedent
Agreement
Remember
:
Pronouns agree in:
Number, gender, and person

Pronouns are the words that
replace
the antecedent.
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Rules
:
http://prezi.com/cfm5uecvdcrg/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share
Pronouns
are words that replace a noun.

Pronouns
must always agree with their
antecedent
, or the word that they refer back to.

Ex.:
Phoebe and Joey
went on a road trip.
They
drove from Las Vegas back to New York.
Semicolons
Colons
Commas
,
;
:
SIGN POSTS: Tell us to pause before continuing
Semicolons are ONLY USED between two grammatically equal phrases that follow each other logically and so closely that a period would be less effective.

Ex.: Rachel called off her engagement; it was sudden and unexpected.
Colons are most often used to reference a complicated list or series, usually preceded by an independent clause.

Ex.: Monica worked in several restaurants: Cafe des Artistes, the Moondance Diner, and Alessandro's.
Comma Rules
:
I skipped rule 8.

Oops.
Other Punctuation
Apostrophes
Dash vs. Hyphen
Use apostrophes to show that either:
Something belongs to someone/something
You left letters out of a contraction
Eleven's waffles
Cannot becomes can't
A dash and a hyphen look similar, but do different things
DASH
"used to connect two or more words (and numbers) into a single concept, especially for building adjectives" (Purdue OWL)
ex.: the Italian-American actor, Joey Tribbiani
HYPHEN
"be used to indicate an interruption"
"substitutes for parentheses"
(Purdue OWL)
KEYBOARD: Short, single dash, no spaces
The cat-- smelly though it was-- hopped onto the tale.
KEYBOARD: Two dashes side-by-side with a space after
CAREFUL!
It's easy to be confused by possession and plurals.
1980s
millions of dollars
all the employees' phones
There are eight parts of speech that make up sentences:
1. Nouns
2. Pronouns
3. Verbs
4. Adjectives
5. Adverbs
6. Prepositions
7. Conjunctions
8. Interjections
The More You Know:
SUBJECTS OF SENTENCES ARE
NEVER, EVER, EVER, EVER, EVER, EVER
IN PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
Sentence Types
Simple
:
1 independent clause
Compound
:
2 or more independent clauses
Complex
:
1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses
Compound
-
Complex
:
2 or more independent clauses and 1 or more dependent clauses
Punctuation are the marks used to separate words, sentences, phrases, etc. to help clarify meaning.

ex.: Jeepers, mister! You're strong.
PARTS OF SPEECH
To view the Parts of Speech Prezi, click here:
http://prezi.com/iwgbvoyusmg8/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy
Sentences, or independent clauses, are phrases with a complete meaning.

ex.: Six friends are there.
PUNCTUATION
Caution!
Sometimes, subjects come
AFTER
verbs. Usually, you are cued by "there is" or a similar phrase.
Ex.: There is a snake in my boot!
This applies ONLY to full sentences. A bunch of fragments thrown together are STILL JUST A HUGE FRAGMENT.
PARALLELISM
Verbs can change depending on the number of people indicated in the subject, the time period (past, present, future), and when we use infinitives ("to" + verb)
But, no matter how you use the verb, you should be consistent.
I like
to shop
and
to go
to the movies.
Problems with parallelism happen when you present verbs in different ways.
I like
shopping
and
to go
to the movies.
1. with the RULE OF COORDINATION
2. or, make the clauses into two different sentences.
This will create a COMPOUND SENTENCE
This means you are joining
two unequal items
(one part will be reliant upon, or subordiate to, the other part). Attach the fragment to an independent clause.
Start with the dependent clause, put a comma, then put the independent clause
Start with the independent clause and go right into the dependent clause without a comma
You can sometimes just get rid of the part that make it a fragment
This will create a COMPLEX or COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
Related note:
You should write/spell out numbers that can be done so in one or two words.
Pronoun Cases
First
Second
Third
Indefinite
Related note:

In the movies, you can see the characters are clearly altered
, such as
Bucky and Steve.

I heard Marylou got fired
, because
Bob was gossiping in my dad’s store.

Section One: Parts of Speech
Section Two: Sentences
Section Three: Sentence Errors
Section Four: Punctuation and Misc.
Titles
"Shorter Works" use quotation marks



Longer Works
use italics



Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns don't refer directly or clearly to any one person or thing.
ex.: Each of the players
ex.: Everyone
When you individualize people (each, one, etc.): SINGULAR

When everyone gets tossed into a group together: PLURAL
ex.: All of the students
Quick Tip
: This can be made into an easy-to-remember table in your notes!
Full transcript