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Transcript of Grammar Review
ex.: team, band, class, staff, etc.
RUN-ON: COMMA SPLICES
RUN-ON: FUSED SENTENCES
...AND COMMAS...AND SEMICOLONS...AND COLONS...
A sentence fragment is a word group that pretends to be a sentence. (LP)
ex.: When Chandler proposed to Monica
A comma splice is when two complete sentences are joined only by a comma.
ex.: Ross likes dinosaurs, everyone else thinks he's a nerd.
A fused sentence is another name for a run-on sentence with no joining punctuation.
ex.: Everyone was at Central Perk they listened to Phoebe sing "Smelly Cat."
are people, places, things, and ideas.
are actions or states of being.
Sentences, or independent clauses, are complete thoughts that meet three requirements:
Common versus proper nouns
1. Have a
2. Have a
3. Make sense when they stand alone
in love with Rachel.
*TO FIND THE SUBJECT: find the verb, then ask yourself WHO or WHAT is performing the verb
Pronouns replace/reference a singular or plural noun. We use them to avoid repeating common or proper nouns over and over.
A fragment is:
missing a subject
Ran to the store. (Missing the subject- who ran?)
missing a verb or has the wrong verb form
My favorite history teacher. (Missing the verb- What did the teacher do or say?)
a leftover phrase
For better or worse. (What is better or worse?)
an abandoned clause
When I saw her. (What happened when “I saw her?”)
a misuse of “such as, for example, especially,” etc.
For example, my brother was there. (an example of what?)
Find a Fragment
Fix a Fragment
RULE OF SUBORDINATION
Find a Run-on
Fix a Run-on
Commas are used to help readers avoid confusion. They go in lists or set off dependent clauses,
or non-essential information
, in most cases.
Semicolons are "used to connect major sentence elements of equal grammatical rank" (LP).
Colons are "used primarily to call attention to the words that follow it" (LP).
Turn the sentence into a yes-or-no question. Does it make sense? Can you answer with a single yes or no?
Ex.: Rachel lives with Joey, she used to live with Monica.
Does Rachel live with Joey, she used to live with Monica?
This means you are joining
two equal items
Use a semicolon ALONE
Use a semicolon AND a conjunctive adverb and comma (ex. otherwise, perhaps, nevertheless)
Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction. (FANBOYS)
Subjects and verbs must agree.
agree with singular
agree with plural
a massage therapist.
Monica and Ross
1. When a subject is singular, the verb has an -s ending.
2. When a subject is plural, the verb does not have an -s ending.
Subject-Verb Agreement Rules
Pronouns agree in:
Number, gender, and person
Pronouns are the words that
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement Rules
are words that replace a noun.
must always agree with their
, or the word that they refer back to.
Phoebe and Joey
went on a road trip.
drove from Las Vegas back to New York.
SIGN POSTS: Tell us to pause before continuing
Semicolons are ONLY USED between two grammatically equal phrases that follow each other logically and so closely that a period would be less effective.
Ex.: Rachel called off her engagement; it was sudden and unexpected.
Colons are most often used to reference a complicated list or series, usually preceded by an independent clause.
Ex.: Monica worked in several restaurants: Cafe des Artistes, the Moondance Diner, and Alessandro's.
I skipped rule 8.
Dash vs. Hyphen
Use apostrophes to show that either:
Something belongs to someone/something
You left letters out of a contraction
Cannot becomes can't
A dash and a hyphen look similar, but do different things
"used to connect two or more words (and numbers) into a single concept, especially for building adjectives" (Purdue OWL)
ex.: the Italian-American actor, Joey Tribbiani
"be used to indicate an interruption"
"substitutes for parentheses"
KEYBOARD: Short, single dash, no spaces
The cat-- smelly though it was-- hopped onto the tale.
KEYBOARD: Two dashes side-by-side with a space after
It's easy to be confused by possession and plurals.
millions of dollars
all the employees' phones
There are eight parts of speech that make up sentences:
The More You Know:
SUBJECTS OF SENTENCES ARE
NEVER, EVER, EVER, EVER, EVER, EVER
IN PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES
1 independent clause
2 or more independent clauses
1 independent clause and 1 or more dependent clauses
2 or more independent clauses and 1 or more dependent clauses
Punctuation are the marks used to separate words, sentences, phrases, etc. to help clarify meaning.
ex.: Jeepers, mister! You're strong.
PARTS OF SPEECH
To view the Parts of Speech Prezi, click here:
Sentences, or independent clauses, are phrases with a complete meaning.
ex.: Six friends are there.
Sometimes, subjects come
verbs. Usually, you are cued by "there is" or a similar phrase.
Ex.: There is a snake in my boot!
This applies ONLY to full sentences. A bunch of fragments thrown together are STILL JUST A HUGE FRAGMENT.
Verbs can change depending on the number of people indicated in the subject, the time period (past, present, future), and when we use infinitives ("to" + verb)
But, no matter how you use the verb, you should be consistent.
to the movies.
Problems with parallelism happen when you present verbs in different ways.
to the movies.
1. with the RULE OF COORDINATION
2. or, make the clauses into two different sentences.
This will create a COMPOUND SENTENCE
This means you are joining
two unequal items
(one part will be reliant upon, or subordiate to, the other part). Attach the fragment to an independent clause.
Start with the dependent clause, put a comma, then put the independent clause
Start with the independent clause and go right into the dependent clause without a comma
You can sometimes just get rid of the part that make it a fragment
This will create a COMPLEX or COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
You should write/spell out numbers that can be done so in one or two words.
In the movies, you can see the characters are clearly altered
, such as
Bucky and Steve.
I heard Marylou got fired
Bob was gossiping in my dad’s store.
Section One: Parts of Speech
Section Two: Sentences
Section Three: Sentence Errors
Section Four: Punctuation and Misc.
"Shorter Works" use quotation marks
Indefinite pronouns don't refer directly or clearly to any one person or thing.
ex.: Each of the players
When you individualize people (each, one, etc.): SINGULAR
When everyone gets tossed into a group together: PLURAL
ex.: All of the students
: This can be made into an easy-to-remember table in your notes!