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Transcript of Tikal
(Center of Classical
period 800-900 CE)
S - Maya society was rigidly divided between leaders, religious elite,
nobles, merchants and craftsmen, and farmers and slaves.
(Women... Toniná, a Mayan city-state developed a matrilineal system of hereditary descent after the reign and death of the powerful leader, Lady K’awil. She had assumed the mantle of power after the failure of the two male leaders.)
P - The Ancient Maya shared a similar ideology and worldview, but
they were never united as a single empire. Instead, the Maya lived in individual political states that were linked together through trade, political alliances, and tribute obligations.
S - Social structure similar to Maya;
women had limited leadership
roles, could not serve as warriors, but did receive formal education.
E - Pochteca
Why did it collapse??
Constant warfare between city-states?
Decrease in food production?
E - Reciprocal labor exchange known as
Literally translating as “turn work” or a “turn” of labor.
Principal way the Inca secured the labor necessary for the construction of roads, agricultural terraces, warehouses, temples, and other public works.
S - Society based on ayllu (extended
Ayllu were self sufficient and paid tribute to a local city state (Incan storehouses)
WHY DID THEY COLLAPSE??
WHY DID THEY COLLAPSE??
Origin of Bantu People
Factors leading to migration...
Greater food production and increased population
REASON 1: Population Pressures
Less arable land
REASON 2: Desertification
QUESTION IS... WHERE WILL THEY MIGRATE
AND WHAT PATH WILL THEY TAKE??
Capital city of Empire of Zimbabwe
Occupied between the 11th - 15th centuries CE
Food supplied to city as tribute from hinterlands
WHAT HAPPENS TO PEOPLE IN THEIR WAY??
ANCIENT GHANA (700-1100)
Traders maintained separate village (dual villages)... assimilation was a slow process
African ruler's power based partially in magic (at odds with Islam)
Muslims scholars used first as bookkeepers and trade administrators... later began to influence culture and religion
Why did they collapse?
1. New gold deposits to
the east shifted trade
3. Increasing influence
of Islam favored cities
that embraced the
Mali (1100-1400 CE)
Songhay (1300 - 1600 CE)
Wealth from gold and salt trade
Did NOT directly control
trade... required miners and
Berber traders to pay a tax
Decline due to weak rulers,
raids by Tuareg Berber and Mossi
Had been part of Mali Empire, but they were never able to collect taxes from them
Became capital of Songhay Empire
Rulers were expert military strategists:
Sonni the Great - cavalry with expert
horsemen, fleets of canoes... tries to limit influence of Islam (power based in magic)
Mohammed Ture Askiya - leader at height
of empire... converted to Islam and conducted
jihad (VERY CENTRALIZED GOVERNMENT)
Declined due to: Drought
Invasions by Moroccans using
Spanish mercenaries (Moroccans
never maintained direct rule so region experienced division and chaos)
Nov. - Feb. Monsoon
April - Sept. Monsoon
Sail and boat construction
Dominance of Indian Ocean Trade:
Revival in 7th century(Tang China & Abbasid)
Growth of larger states
Spread of new religions
More developed trade
TAXES on ships!!
Buddhism, Hinduism, and native religions
P - Organized into a confederation of
city states; wealth based on warfare
P - Empire based on ONE strong leader who
made ALL DECISIONS!!! (This is how they
maintained their power... elite, warriors,
craftsmen, peasants followed a strict chain
(Migrated sometime between 3000 & 1000 BCE)
Formed Trading Alliance:
Independent city states
Linked by Swahili & Islam
Competed with large empires