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How to claim things

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Brian Lain

on 5 September 2018

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Transcript of How to claim things

The Power of Rhetoric
Choose between these two
1. The power to impose your will on others through the use of words, in spite of reason

2. The power to be armed against that power- the ability to dissect and critically understand attempts to impose one’s will on others
What happens if you have the first and not the second?
Rhetoric as Defense against the Dark Arts
Rhetoric is not only the ability to construct persuasive discourses
It is the ability to Understand and be critical of persuasive discourses
That’s what Rhetorical Studies are
Rhetoric and New Sources
Rhetoric is concerned with how social power is exercised through discourses
What is Argumentation?
Argumentation is the study of the principles by which beliefs and actions are evaluated and related to one another. Argumentation is a language-based social phenomenon that enables us to discover what beliefs and actions are reasonable in any social context and that is concerned with the selection and organization of ideas to justify particular positions. (Ziegelmueller & Kay, Argumentation: Inquiry and Advocacy)
What is Argumentation?
Argumentation is the communicative process of advancing, supporting, criticizing, and modifying claims so that appropriate decision makers, defined by relevant spheres, may grant or deny adherence. (Rieke and Sillars Argumentation and Critical Decision Making)
How to make a claim
defines argument as a social-interactive process, because people’s decisions are the products of argumentation
collections of people in the process of interacting upon and making critical decisions
Multiple overlapping spheres
Church group, family, political party, UNT, etc.
Levels of Spheres- Personal, Technical, Public
Difference Between
Argument1 and Argument2
Argument1- a claim, or statement made by an advocate. Argument as Product.
Argument2-A dialogic exchange between two or more people, i.e. having an argument. Argument as Process
Difference Between
Argument1 and Argument2
Argument0 (?)-the psychological process of deciding inside one’s own head. Intrapersonal argument.
What is an Argument1?
An argument is a complete
unit of thought containing
three basic elements,
the reasoning process, and
the conclusion.
Is this an argument?
What is a Claim?
What you are arguing about, the argument you are making
Sometimes called the conclusion
A single statement advanced for the adherence of others
Claims of Fact
Past, Present, or Future existence of an Observable Condition
All this is to say that incorrect observations are arguments nonetheless and correct observations are still arguable
Claims of Value
Claims of Value contain a value term, a word expressing judgment, belief, or opinion.
Claims of Policy
Concerns a course of action (a policy)

Easily identified with must, should, or ought, these indicate a change of the course of action

Ex: We should lower the drinking age

Ex: We should go to the movies

Ex: You must give me a mint
Traditional rhetorical criticism
Can you find examples of fact, value, and policy?
Why is the Classification of Fact, Value, and Policy Useful?
This means that every claim of policy contains key value and fact assumptions which can be argued in the form of their claims

Also, This means that policy claims can be refuted and deconstructed by attending to the claims residing “within” them
Approaches to controversies can be assisted by defining what you are arguing about

Analysis forms a Chain,
Why is the Classification of Fact, Value, and Policy Useful?
Facts, There is a singer named Lana Del Rey

Values, Lana Del Rey is terrible
Policy, We must destroy Lana Del Rey
1.Begin Editorial Assignment
What about this?
The Cowboys won Sunday night
The Cowboys Will win next week
The Cowboys destroyed the Giants Sunday
The Giants are going to suck this year
Full transcript