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Unit 1 Bio Project

Jessica C

on 28 February 2013

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Transcript of Chemotherapy

By: Jessica Cunningham Drugs Targeting Tumor Cells During Chemotherapy Development Cells Targeted The first chemotherapy drug that was used on patients were from nitrogen mustard which is a poisonous gas. Type of Drugs Alkylating agents When a patient is given a chemotherapy treatment the drugs mainly targets the cells that are doing arm to the body. If a patient has a tumor it will then target the tumor cells which will try to decrease the size of the tumor. If all goes well the drugs with only target the harmful cells and not the healthy ones which would then led to further health problems. How the drugs work As the chemotherapy drugs enter the body it is carried through the bloodstreams where it can then reach the damaged cells. Risk Thinking and memory changes What is chemo good for? Does Chemotherapy really work? What is Chemotherapy? How does it work? How chemotherapy drugs are used Chemotherapy is a processes where chemicals (drugs) are inserted into your body to treat many different diseases with the hopes of killing damaged/harmful cells. Once one is given a chemotherapy treatment the drug is supposes to slow down or even better stops the growth of cancer cells. Stop the spread of cancer cells or kill cancer cells that may reappear. Make a tumor smaller before surgery which is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. Kills cancer cells that may still exist after a surgery which is called adjuvant chemotherapy. Help radiation therapy and biological therapy work more smoothly. Cell damage Heat damage Lung Damage Nervous System Changes Chemotherapy decreases the chances of cancer reappearing to patients with stage 1 cancer. Antimetabolites Topoisomerase inhibitors Vinca alkaloids Tazanes Podophyllotoxin Anthracyclines This gas was exposed to solider who fought in the war where their bones marrows and lymph nodes would be affected by it and damaged. Meaning the cells in those particular parts of their body were reduced. This drug damages DNA to stop the cell from reproducing. This drug interferes with DNA and RNA by substituting the normal building blocks This drug interferes with enzymes involved in DNA replication This drug interferes with topoisomerase enzymes which help separate the strands of DNA so they can be copied This drug prevents the cell from entering the G1 phase This drug helps the stability of microtubles which prevent the separation of chromosomes during anaphase This drug binds to specific sites on tubulin forming the tubulin into microtubules which is the M phase of the cell cycle. Although the drug used are to kill only cancer cells it sometimes also damages normal cells. Some chemotherapy treatments especially anthracycline can damage heart muscles. This happens to every one out of ten people. Some chemotherapy medications can cause permanent damage to lungs. This is more likely to happen to patients who smoke or are over the age of 70. With the use of certain drugs chemotherapy patients can experience fuzzy and/or delayed reaction times. Some chemo patients may experience change in their brain, spinal cord and cranial nerves. The may also experience neck pain, headaches, vomiting, fatigue, fever, depression, seizures, blurred vision, or numbness. Chemotherapy decreases the chance of death from the disease. It can be used to shrink the size of tumors and eliminate the amount of cancer cells Chemotherapy slows down cancer growth which increases the patient to live a longer, less painful life. When cells are at their last stage most of the time they do not divide they rest and only divide if they need to repair damage. If a cell continues to divide it will form a mass of cells which will turn into a lump which is a tumor. Chemotherapy damages the genes which are inside the nucleus. Cells that are no longer dividing meaning they are at rest have a less chance of being damaged by the drug. Unfortunately chemotherapy will not always work. Sometimes it depends on the type of cancer the body has where the treatment will work better with certain types. If one where to develop a type of cancer having a chemotherapy treatment is the best thing to consider since you will have a chance of living a longer life. THANK YOU! In 1909 the first chemotherapeutic agent Paul Ehrlich's arsphenamin was discovered which was a arsenic compound. As the damaged cells are dividing chemotherapy damages them.
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