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Chapter 6 The Creation of the Roman Empire

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tim hudenburg

on 24 February 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 6 The Creation of the Roman Empire

The Creation of the Roman Empire
Death of
Caesar
…ends the republic begins the empire
increase in blood sports: gladiators/chariot races
four horse chariots most popular & expensive sport in the Roman Empire
Circus Maximus
assassinations & violence
Empire slowly rots from within
Caligula, however bankrupted the treasury
Called a monster for his murders
and sexual crimes; incest with his sisters
fighting in mock gladiatorial combats
appearing in public in women’s clothing
believed he could be allow anything
praetorian commanders murdered him in his
fourth year of rule
Caligula means (Baby boots)
staying loyal and managing the collection of taxes while governing provinces
by pretending that the republic’s traditional offices retained their original power

Tiberius designated Gaius,
better know
as Caligula (r. 37-41 C.E.)
next emperor
Senate approved him


Caligula
Having no son, he adopted Livia’s son by a previous marriage.

Tiberius (42 B.C.E. -37 C.E.) brilliant career as a general, the army supported Augustus’ choice. The Senate granted Tiberius the power of a tribune and the power of a consul
Augustus died in 14 C.E.

Tiberius (r. 14-37 C.E.) army’s loyalty & praetorian guard
guards would influence all future successions
compromise between the elite and the emperor
political stability consul, senator, and provincial governor continued
elite Romans & emperors
decided who received the offices
controlled law and government policy & social elite
THE PERPETUATION OF THE PRINCIPATE AFTER AUGUSTUS
Julio-Claudians until the death in 68 C.E. of Nero
Augustus’ last descendent
family dynasties ruled the principate
prevent unrest, maintain loyalty, finance administration and army, and govern the provinces
emperor’s image as a just ruler and generous patron
promote Roman law and culture
citizens, in return for their loyalty, expected the emperors to be generous patrons
POLITICS AND SOCIETY IN THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE
legitimizing the transformed political system. emperor’s dominance limited frank political debate or subversive art.
Orators & writers--criticism of the ruler was very dangerous
no public schools, only wealthy Romans received formal education
Golden Age of Latin literature
Horace
Virgil
peace existed at the cost of freedom
Livy--history of Rome
stability and prosperity depended on traditional values of loyalty and self sacrifice
Ovid--Art of Love
Love Affairs
Ovid’s Metamorphoses
Augustus exiled the poet in 8 B.C.E.
Augustus preferred sculpture & idealized style…sculpture to project a calm and competent image
Augustus as “Restorer of the Roman Republic”
CHANGES IN EDUCATION, LITERATURE, AND ART IN AUGUSTUS’S ROME
Violence
public entertainment
killing wild beats, animals mangling condemned criminals, mock naval battles & gladiatorial combats
wreck-filled chariot races
The emperor and senators sat up front
women and the poor were in the upper tiers aka cheap seats


Violence
first public fire department in Western history
first permanent police force
city’s sewer system
city grid layout structure/city planning
human and animal corpses in the streets
Flies and no refrigeration
wealthy splurged on luxuries
slaves sent into the mountains to get ice for their drinks
slaves to clean their houses
concrete, brick, and stone
height limit of seventy feet on new apartment buildings
Augustan Rome
emperor governed like a stern father
obedience/loyalty/stability/order but not freedom
ruled until his death at age seventy-five in 14 C.E.
Augustus found Rome brick left it marble
Augustus “Father of His Country”
crucial role in selecting the next emperor
provide security for the emperor
Augustus
patron and public benefactor
coins
buildings
“Father of His Country” moral authority
“Roads have been built” generosity
spectacular public buildings
PRAETORIAN GUARD


Augustus made the military the foundation of the emperor’s power
Changed the republic’s citizen soldier militia into a professional,
full-time army and navy
Regular lengths of service and retirement benefits
Emperor was the troops’ patron and solidified loyalty to him
Rome’s first inheritance tax on citizens, angered the rich.
He stationed several thousand soldiers in Rome for the first time.
Augustus
Augustus ruled the state
"Moral authority” --dressed and acted modestly
Livia, his modest wife
Old-fashioned values
He was supreme power: controlled the army and the treasury
He referred to the state as the republic;
Senators and the consuls continued to exist but not powerful
Augustus

Antony controlled the eastern provinces
ruler of Egypt, Queen Cleopatra VII (69-30 B.C.E.)
earlier allied with Caesar
Antony, who was married to Octavian’s sister, fell in love with Cleopatra.
Octavian’s victory in the naval battle of Actium
in 31 B.C.E. Cleopatra & Antony return to Egypt suicide
Octavian’s revenues from the capture of Egypt made him Rome’s richest citizen
2nd Triumvirate & Cleopatra
After Caesar’s death his friend Mark Antony & Caesar’s eighteen-year-old grandnephew & adopted son, Octavian (Augustus) took over & shared power
Octavian won over Caesar's soldiers
Octavian forced the Senate to make him consul in 43 B.C.E.
Octavian & Mark Anthony joined with the general named Lepidus to eliminate rivals.
In 43 B.C.E. Second Triumvirate--murdered many of their enemies
Octavian and Antony then forced Lepidus out
SPQR
CIVIL WAR, 44-27 B.C.E
Augustus “made haste slowly”.
reinvented government
won the army’s support
violence to win power
political legitimacy
dedicated leader and patron
valued tradition
disguised power monarchy in republican guise
making the new look old
FROM REPUBLIC TO EMPIRE, 44 B.C.E – 14 C.E.
The military eventually weakened Rome
Distances were too great & enemies too strong
Army was no longer an offensive weapon
became an expensive defense force
Financial strain drained treasury & destabilized the government

Roman Might
agriculture and trade to flourish


PAX ROMANA (“Roman Peace”)


Augustus retained traditional institution for sharing power – Senate, the consuls, the courts
He & his successors governed like kings ruling an empire.
two hundred years of relative peace & stability:
Pax Romana
except for a struggle between generals for rule in 69 C.E.
Trade & agriculture flourished & the economy
Roman Empire
THE CREATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE
Augustus’ grandnephew, bribed the praetorian guard
original republic was never coming back
Claudius was an active emperor
successful invasion of Britain in 43 C.E.
upper-class provincial received offices and prestige at Rome
imperial bureaucracy by employing freed salves as powerful administrators
loyalty only to the emperor

Claudius (4. 41-54 C.E.)
Celebrities & prizes
Most gladiators were men, though women could fight other women
Gladiators were often wounded or killed
contests rarely required a fight to the death
competed with different weapons
“net man” a trident against a heavily armored “fish man”
Betting was popular & crowds were rowdy
Public entertainment supported communication between the ruler & ruled
gladiatorial combats, chariot races, and theater productions
gladiators
Spartacus rebellion
harshness of slaves’ lives varied widely
Domestic slaves were often women
some male slaves ran businesses
many female prostitutes were slaves
with their savings would sometimes buy other slaves
slaves attacked their owner, the punishment was death
Slavery
Augustus paid for grain to fee the poor
Distribution of food to 250,000 heads of households
Bread or soup/ leeks/cheese/cheap wine
Rich ate more costly food
Money on luxuries and political careers
Falling birthrate
Adultery as
Rome still gave citizenship to freed slaves
Eventually most Romans had slave ancestors
Augustan Rome
Rome’s population nearly a million
Most residents lived in small apartments in multi-storied buildings called island.
The wealthy, who lived at ground level, had piped-in water
Sanitation was a problem in this city that generated

sixty tons of human waste daily
everyone could bathe regularly
men and women bathed apart
DAILY LIFE IN THE ROME AUGUSTUS
public gathering space
a new age of peace and security
military power, devotion to the gods
generosity & public works
paternalism & patron-client
princeps & most important patron
moral authority
Forum of Augustus 2 B.C.E
In 27 B.C.E., Octavian “gave back the state from (his) own power
(back) to the control of the Roman Senate and the people”
Senators asked him to safeguard the state
AUGUSTUS, meaning “divinely favored.”
retained the name and symbols of the republic
maintained appearance of representative government.
Citizens elected consuls
Senate gave advice & assemblies met
Augustus concealed his power as the 'first man' Princips
THE CREATION OF THE PRINCIPATE, 27 B.C.E. – 14 C.E.
Christianity emerged
transformed the Roman world
Roman anxiety--we will lose it all


Problems
seventeen years of civil war after Julius Caesar’s death in 44 B.C.E. almost two decades of instability
27 B.C.E. his adopted son, Octavian
Caesar Augustus, removed rivals & disguised the monarchy with trappings of Republican Rome;
He was called the 'First Citizen' & restored the image of the republic
He ended the violence during his reign
transformation from republic to empire
THE CREATION OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE

Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Roman Empire punished disloyalty
refusal of Christians to put civic duty above faith
religious faith above loyalty to family or state
-->higher authority considered treasonous
systematic persecution
Christians who refused were killed
persecution did not stop the civil war
Emperor Gallienus ordered Christians to be left alone
loss of peace, prosperity, and territory, the empire needed a political transformation to service


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

Shapur I, king of the Sasanid Empire of Persia invaded the province of Syria captured the emperor Valerian
Zenobia, the warrior queen of Palmyra in Syria seized Egypt & Asia Minor
Aurelian (r. 270-275 C.E.) won back these provinces
larger wall to ward off attacks
Christians
Emperor Decius


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

half century of civil war
period
destroyed the principate
ability to command a frontier army
to reward the troops for loyalty
civil war devastated the population
economy
Violence and hyperinflation


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

Septimius Severus his son Caracalla
financial crisis
drained the treasury to satisfy the army and their own dreams of glory
government crisis and civil war
Severus
Mesopotamia and Scotland
soldiers expected the emperors to provide gifts and extra money.


UNCONTROLLED SPENDING, NATURAL DISASTERS, AND POLITICAL CRISIS, 193-284 C.E.

northern warrior’s
hiring them as auxiliary soldiers for the Roman army
army
450,000 troops
fortified camp every night
The increased demand for pay and supplies
negative
inflation


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

they mounted especially damaging invasions during the reign of Marcus Aurelius.
when a new Persian dynasty, the Sassanids, defeated the Parthian Empire
re-create the ancient Persian Empire
Persia’s renewed military power forced the Roman
army to protect the rich eastern provinces


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

third century C.E., military expenses provoked a financial crisis
crisis lasting from the 230s to the 280s C.E.
army for defense, but no new revenues came in


FROM STABILITY TO CRISIS IN THE THIRD CENTURY C.E.

“science of living”
self-discipline and duty
Marcus Aurelius
TO MYSELF (or Meditations)
fate
Individual dealing with what the world and time throws his or her way!
philosophy


STOICISM

polytheism
strong emotions
a moral way of life
was Cleopatra’s religion
kind, compassionate goddess Isis
caused the Nile to flood every year and bring them good harvests


third century C.E.
Christianity
of Judaism and polytheistic cults
competing beliefs
change their present lives for the better afterlife
mystery cults of Demeter and Persephone
Isis and Mithras
male bishops came to power, they demoted women from positions of leadership
women should be subordinate to men
women still claimed authority in some groups in the second and third centuries C.E.
many women chose a life without sex


Roman Empire

official hierarchy
Most Christians lived in cities and towns
Pagans
“country person” or “rural villager”
hence the word pagan
traditional polytheism
Paganism lived on in rural areas for centuries


Roman Empire

Christians should withdraw from the everyday world
Others follow Christ’s teachings while living ordinary lives
Christians could remain loyal subjects of the emperor
Disagreement over these doctrinal questions
administer the congregations
spiritual communion
GROWTH OF A NEW RELIGION

Tertullian
“martyrs’ blood is the seed of the Church” Ignatius
martyrs’ courage
new religion gave its believers spiritual power to endure suffering
First-century C.E. Christians expected Jesus to return to pass judgment on the world during their lifetimes
from an apocalyptic Jewish sect


GROWTH OF A NEW RELIGION

quick to blame Christians for disasters
Nero declared that Christian arsonists set Rome’s great fire
----Rome had 340 miles of catacombs
Nero’s cruelty
earned Christians sympathy from Rome’s population
no law against Christianity
officials could punish Christians


GROWTH OF A NEW RELIGION

prosecute
organization from scratch
whether women could continue as leaders in their congregations
Roman emperors
Christians baffling and troublesome
Christians symbolically ate the body and drank the blood of Jesus
cannibalism and sexual promiscuity


GROWTH OF A NEW RELIGION

costs Jews their religious center, Christianity began to separate more and more clearly from Judaism.
number of letters – thirteen-
twenty-seven Christian writings
New Testament
Jewish Bible
Old Testament
urban areas
women in some locations could be leaders
Paul, opposed women’s leadership



JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

he did not require male converts to undergo the Jewish initiation rite of circumcision.
did not have to observe Jewish dietary restrictions or festivals
tensions with Jewish authorities in Jerusalem as well as with followers of Jesus living there
Roman authorities arrested Paul
executed him in 65 C.E.
Jews to revolt in 66 C.E.
Roman emperor Titus destroyed the Jerusalem temple
the city’s population into slavery


JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

opposed Jews who accepted Jesus as the Messiah
spiritual vision on the road to Damascus in Syria
divine revelation
follower of Jesus
Messiah or Christ
Jesus as divine and his crucifixion
ultimate sacrifice
salvation
Paul’s mission
JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

God’s true kingdom
heaven
God’s love for humanity and people’s responsibility
moral teachings of the scholar Hillel, who lived in Jesus’ time.
Jewish population of Jerusalem
miraculous healing and exorcisms
powerful preaching
Jesus movement
Jewish sect
Sadducees and Pharisees


JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

Jesus’s life. Jesus wrote nothing down
taught in parables
challenged his followers to reflect on what he meant
by John the Baptist
repentance
John was executed as a rebel
God’s kingdom was coming
Jesus as the Messiah,but apocalypticism did not call for immediate revolt against the Romans


JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

A final judgment
Apocalypticism
influenced the Jews living
Christians and Muslims
Unrest in Judaea
Roman governor
New Testament Gospels
70 to 90 C.E.


JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

Roman policy of eliminating any threat to social order
Paul of Tarsus-->critical role in the spread of Christianity to non-Jews
beyond his region’s Jewish community to the wider Roman world
divine justice
Jews into revolt
Messiah (“anointed one”) Christ the Greek


JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

“The Jesus movement” Jewish splinter group in Judea
ancestral religion
three centuries after the death of Jesus, Christians were still a minority in the Roman Empire
Jesus’s charismatic career


THE EMERGENCE OF CHRISTIANITY IN THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

“Better people”
“humbler people”
higher status required of him or her a higher level of responsibility for common good
steady population levels
marriage
reproduction
arranged marriages
Girls often married in their early teens
many babies died young
health hazards


LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

mixed cultural traditions
eastern provinces
Greek
because Hellenistic royal traditions
the emperor as their patron and themselves as his clients
vitality of Greek language and culture
LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

men and women
observed traditions
community service by the upper class
respect and social status
Roman culture & Latin language had the greatest effect on western Europe
Latin--languages that would emerge from it
Roman law
LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

Upon discharge, they received Roman citizenship
army helped spread a common way of life
Paying for defense became an impossible problem
riches and prisoners of war sold as slaves
regular income from taxes
soldiers had to be paid well
LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.
defense by a loyal military
elites
tax collection
healthy population
small numbers of soldiers
emperors lacked the resources to expand the empire
defending imperial territory


LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.
Nerva (r. 96-98 C.E.)
Trajan (r. 98-117 C.E.)
Hadrian (r. 117-138 C.E.)
Antoninus Pius (r. 138-161 C.E.)
Marcus Aurelius (r.161-180 C.E.)
Roman Empire
Jerusalem in 70 C.E.
relief to Pompeii and Herculaneum 79 C.E.
He built Rome’s Colosseum
Titus died suddenly
Roman Empire

Claudius’s successor, Nero (r. 54-68 C.E.)
saw himself as a musician and actor
poor loved him for his free public entertainments
and free distribution of cash
His generals suppressed a revolt in Britain led by the woman commander
Boudica
in 60 C.E.
Jewish rebels against Roman rule in Judea in 66 C,E,


Roman Empire

Chapter 6 Part II
Creation of Roman Empire
Diocletian (r. 284-305 C.E.) worst persecutor of Christians
Constantine (r. 306-337 C.E.)
Roman Empire also began the slow process of becoming officially Christian.


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

population declined
food supplies became less dependable, civil war killed soldiers and civilians alike
infection
loss of population meant fewer soldiers for the army
frontier areas more vulnerable
roving bands of robbers
Foreign enemies to the north and east


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

life miserable in many regions
Agriculture withered
armies searching for food ravaged their crops
escalating demands for tax revenues
endless financial pressure destroyed members’ will to serve their communities
Earthquakes and epidemics


THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

He increased the soldiers’ pay by another 40 to 50 percent
building projects
largest public baths
In 212 C.E. , Caracalla
granting Roman citizenship to every man and woman in imperial territory except slaves
increase in citizens meant an increase of revenues
he wrecked imperial finances
UNCONTROLLED SPENDING, NATURAL DISASTERS, AND POLITICAL CRISIS, 193-284 C.E.

demand for goods and services
some emperors attempted to curb inflation by debasing imperial coinage. DEBASEMENT OF COINAGE meant putting less silver in each coin without changing its face value.
created more cash
merchants soon raised prices
debased coinage reduced value
produced more inflation
prices to rise even more
this pressure drove imperial finances into collapse by the 250s C.E.



THREATS TO THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN FRONTIERS
OF THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

client armies to seize power in a prolonged civil war
Earthquakes
epidemics
By 284 C.E.
destroyed the Pax Romana


FROM STABILITY TO CRISIS IN THE THIRD CENTURY C.E.

ultimate reality is a trinity of The One, of Mind, and of Soul
self-discipline
personal morality and spiritual purity
philosophical contemplation


NEOPLATONISM

loving mother
in art she was often depicted nursing her son
death and resurrection of her husband, Osiris promise of a life after death
righteously
cult of Mithras--originated in Persia
killed a bull
sacrifice for the benefit of his worshipers


COMPETING RELIGIOUS BELIEFS

traditional polytheism was still the religion of the overwhelming majority of the Roman Empire’s population


Roman Empire

celibacy
as holy and socially superior
of spiritual excellence, celibate Christian women
independence and status otherwise denied them


Roman Empire

baptism and communion
congregations’ memberships
finances
members’ donations
authority to define orthodoxy (true doctrine) and heresy (false doctrine)
early Catholic (Greek for “universal”) church
bishops often disagreed
unity remained impossible to achieve


Roman Empire

bishops
congregations and Christ
define Christian doctrine
administer practical affairs for congregations
The emergence of bishops
apostolic succession
the Apostles appointed the first bishops as their successors
Bishops had authority to ordain ministers
Roman Empire

Romans had nothing to fear from their faith
taught morality and respect for authority
best features of Judaism and Greek thought
occasional persecutions
MARTYR (“witness”)
dies for his or her religious faith
deaths would send them directly to paradise


GROWTH OF A NEW RELIGION

Christianity to become a new religion separate from Judaism
converts outside Judaea, Paul
Asia Minor
Syria
Greece
ethical behavior
rejection of sexual immorality and polytheism
did not have to live strictly according to Jewish law


JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

Roman governor Pontius Pilate ordered his crucifixion in Jerusalem in 30 C.E.
God had raised him from the dead
twelve Apostles “messengers”
faithful Jews
Peter
ambassador to Jews
The later Christian church called him the first bishop of Rome
Paul of Tarsus


JESUS AND HIS TEACHING

salvation
member’s sense of mission
strong bonds of community it inspired
Christianity’s emergence proved the most significant development in Roman history


THE EMERGENCE OF CHRISTIANITY IN THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE

Complications in childbirth
controlled reproduction with contraception
abandoning unwanted infants
emperors tried to support reproduction
money to feed needy children

NEW TESTAMENT

Rise of Christianity

Lucian (c. 117-180 C.E.)
Plutarch--impact on William Shakespeare
Tacitus
Juvenal
Apuleius
“good and fair”


LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

Decurion’s
wealthy men
personally to guarantee that their area’s financial responsibilities
Decurion’s had to pay the difference from their own pockets
Rewards for Decurion’s included priesthoods
imperial cult
LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

a tax on agriculture in the provinces
bureaucracy was inexpensive
taxes stayed in the provinces to pay expenses
Governors with small staffs ran the provinces
tax collection
LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.
Most legions (units of five thousand troops) were stationed on frontiers
long-distance trade
luxury goods
spices and silk
India and China
chants regularly sailed from Egypt to India
the non-Roman learned to speak Latin


LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

Marcus Aurelius fought off invaders from the Danube
“good emperors”
political and economic Golden Age
a philosopher-king
Emperor at the beginning of the movie
Gladiator
adoption to find the best possible successor
army remained obedient
Roman Empire

The Roman political Golden Age
peaceful successions
Trajan
Danube River into Dacia
Mesopotamia
Hadrian executed several senators
Jewish revolt
withdrew Roman forces from Mesopotamia
Roman Empire
Nero’s death sparked a civil war in 69 C.E.
four generals
Vespasian (r. 69-79 C.E.)
Flavians
imperial cult (worship of the emperor)
Vespasian’s son, Titus (r. 79-81 C.E.) and Domitian (r. 81-96 C.E.)
Titus had suppressed the Jewish revolt
Roman Empire

A giant fire in 64 C.E.
legend while Nero fiddled while Rome burned
Nero emptied the treasury by building a huge palace
his generals toppled his regime in 68 C.E.
Roman Empire

Caracalla murdered his brother
Roman Golden Age of peace
spending and cruelty


UNCONTROLLED SPENDING, NATURAL DISASTERS, AND POLITICAL CRISIS, 193-284 C.E.

one in every fifty thousand had enough money to qualify for the senatorial
one in a thousand belonged to the equestrian order
second-ranking class
third-highest order consisted of decurions
local Senate members
provincial towns
legal distinction
elite and the rest
stricter


LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

citizen-families in the provinces; Trajan, from Spain
Romanization
roads and bridges
trade
peaceful conditions
army’s need for supplies


LIFE IN THE ROMAN GOLDEN AGE 98-180 C.E.

Domitian balanced the budget and campaigned against
the Germanic tribes
Domitian’s arrogance & he executed numerous upper-class citizens as disloyal
his wife and members of his court murdered him in 96 C.E.
next five emperors ruled well
Roman Empire

Titus
Domitian
The Five Good Emperors
Marcus Aurelius
Another Monotheistic Religion
rabbi or rebel or son of God?
Isis
Full transcript